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(PartI) Originally, the Descendants of Hua Xia were not the Descendants of Yan Huang

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and Masaryk University, BRNO, Czech Republic, in Jun 2019.

Many Chinese people claimed that they are descendants of Yan Huang, while claiming that they are descendants of Hua Xia. (Yan refers to Yan Di, Huang refers to Huang Di and Xia refers to the Xia Dynasty). Are these truth or false? We will find out from Shanhaijing’s records and modern archaeological discoveries.

 

Abstract:                                                                        

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups first lived in the Pamirs Plateau, soon gathered in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and west of the Qinghai Lake and learned from each other advanced sciences and technologies, later spread out to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. The Yan Di’s offspring spread out to the west of the Taklamakan Desert; The Huang Di’s offspring spread out to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas; The Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s offspring spread out to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, where the Di Jun’s offspring lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s territories, which were near the sea or in the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records.

Archaeological discoveries prove Dong Yi Culture, which was built by the Shao Hao People in the Shandong Peninsula, was the most advanced Neolithic Chinese culture, greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. The Nü He People (called Mother of Yue (moon) in Shanhaijing), who lived in the Jiaodong (eastern Shandong) Peninsula, was one group of the Shao Hao People, had worried about the sea level rising and had sent the Xi He and Chang Xi People to the west of the Shandong Peninsula to expand the scope of their territories. The Nü He (including Xi He and Chang Xi) were the main founders of Dong Yi Culture and held the most advanced science and technologies during the Neolithic Age. They built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures, the earliest Chinese Maritime Culture. They were also the founders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy and Calendar.

It is believed that the name of “Hua Xia” came from the earliest Chinese nations - Hua and Xia, which were the roots of Chinese civilization. The Hua Nation was built by the Hua (Nü He) People as early as Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE) in the eastern Shandong Peninsula and the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE) was built by the Great Yu, an offspring of the Di Jun People, about 4500 years BP in the area between today’s Tongguan and Erlitou along the Yellow River, where early Longshan Dong Yi Culture had turned these Di Qiang Culture regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 Certainly, the Hua and Xia People were the main sources of ancient Chinese in the Yellow and Changjiang River valleys. Archeologists have found Chinese character Hua in ancient Shang Oracle bone scripts referred to a kind of sacrifice to Shang’s ancestors, suggesting the Shang’s emperors regarded the Hua People as their ancestors. However, due to the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BCE) falsely fabricating that Yan Di and Huang Di were common ancestors of all ancient Chinese people, including the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao, many ancient Chinese historical books recorded these falses. Meanwhile, the descendants of Yan Di and Huang Di, who lived in the northern and northwestern Asia, kept invading the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, many Chinese people claimed that they were the descendants of Yan Huang.

 

Keywords: Shanhaijing; Neolithic China, Di Jun, the Great Yu, Erlitou, Ancient Chinese Civilization

 

Introduction

Abstract:                                                                        

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups first lived in the Pamirs Plateau, soon gathered in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and west of the Qinghai Lake and learned from each other advanced sciences and technologies, later spread out to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. The Yan Di’s offspring spread out to the west of the Taklamakan Desert; The Huang Di’s offspring spread out to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas; The Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s offspring spread out to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, where the Di Jun’s offspring lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s territories, which were near the sea or in the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records.

Archaeological discoveries prove Dong Yi Culture, which was built by the Shao Hao People in the Shandong Peninsula, was the most advanced Neolithic Chinese culture, greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. The Nü He People (called Mother of Yue (moon) in Shanhaijing), who lived in the Jiaodong (eastern Shandong) Peninsula, was one group of the Shao Hao People, had worried about the sea level rising and had sent the Xi He and Chang Xi People to the west of the Shandong Peninsula to expand the scope of their territories. The Nü He (including Xi He and Chang Xi) were the main founders of Dong Yi Culture and held the most advanced science and technologies during the Neolithic Age. They built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures, the earliest Chinese Maritime Culture. They were also the founders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy and Calendar.

It is believed that the name of “Hua Xia” came from the earliest Chinese nations - Hua and Xia, which were the roots of Chinese civilization. The Hua Nation was built by the Hua (Nü He) People as early as Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE) in the eastern Shandong Peninsula and the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE) was built by the Great Yu, an offspring of the Di Jun People, about 4500 years BP in the area between today’s Tongguan and Erlitou along the Yellow River, where early Longshan Dong Yi Culture had turned these Di Qiang Culture regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 Certainly, the Hua and Xia People were the main sources of ancient Chinese in the Yellow and Changjiang River valleys. Archeologists have found Chinese character Hua in ancient Shang Oracle bone scripts referred to a kind of sacrifice to Shang’s ancestors, suggesting the Shang’s emperors regarded the Hua People as their ancestors. However, due to the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BCE) falsely fabricating that Yan Di and Huang Di were common ancestors of all ancient Chinese people, including the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao, many ancient Chinese historical books recorded these falses. Meanwhile, the descendants of Yan Di and Huang Di, who lived in the northern and northwestern Asia, kept invading the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, many Chinese people claimed that they were the descendants of Yan Huang.

 

Ancient Chinese Civilizations

Archaeologists and historians commonly agree that Neolithic China had two main ancient cultural systems: the Yellow River Valley and Changjiang River Valley Cultural Systems. Starting from the lower reaches areas of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, these cultures spread to surrounding areas.

The Yellow River Valley Cultural System, which included Di Qiang and Dong Yi cultures, was established on millet cultivation in the early and middle stages of the Neolithic Age and divided from wheat cultivation in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern Henan Province and millet cultivation in other areas, during the period of Longshan Culture (about 3200-1900BCE).

Most small regional cultures of ancient China had faded by the end of Neolithic Age, including the Changjiang River Valley Cultural System. However, the Yellow River Valley Culture became the mainstay of ancient Chinese civilization and developed to a much higher level.

  

Di Qiang Culture

Di Qiang Neolithic Culture contained seven phases:

Laoguantai Culture (about 6000-5000BCE) existed in the Weihe River Valley, or Guanzhong Plain, in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Laoguantai people lived predominantly by primitive agriculture, mainly planting millet.

Qin’an Dadiwan First Culture (about 6200-3000BCE) included pre-Yangshao Culture, Yangshao Culture and Changshan Under-layer Culture. Dating from at least 6000BCE, Qin’an First Culture is the earliest Neolithic culture so far discovered in archaeological digs in the northwestern China. In a site of Dadiwan First Culture in Tianshui of Gansu in the west of the Guanzhong Plain, from around 6200BCE, archaeologists found the earliest cultivated millet.

Yangshao Culture (about 5000-3000BCE), also called Painted-Pottery Culture, existed in the middle reach of the Yellow River. Centered in Huashan, it reached east to eastern Henan Province, west to Gansu and Qinghai provinces, north to the Hetao area, the Great Band of Yellow River and the Great Wall near Inner Mongolia, and south to the Jianghan Plain. Its core areas were Guanzhong and northern Shaanxi Province. Like Laoguantai Culture, it was based predominantly on primitive agriculture, mainly the planting of millet.

Cishan-peiligang Culture (about 6200-4600BCE) existed in modern-day Henan Province and southern Hebei Province. Yangshao Culture later developed from this culture. The people subsisted on agriculture and livestock husbandry, planting millet and raising pigs.

Majiayao Culture (about 3000-2000BCE) was distributed throughout central and southern Gansu Province, centered in the Loess Plateau of western Gansu Province and spreading east to the upper reaches of the Weihe River, west to the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor and northeastern Qinghai Province, north to the southern Ningxia autonomous region and south Sichuan Province. 

From Majiayao Culture came the earliest Chinese bronzes and early writing characters, which evolved from Yangshao Culture’s written language. Maijayao people planted millet and raised pigs, dogs and goats.

Qijia Culture (about 2000-1000BCE) is also known as Early Bronze Culture. Its inhabitation areas were essentially coincident with Majiayao Culture. It had roots not only in Majiayao Culture, but also influences from cultures in the east of Longshan and the central Shaanxi Plain. Qijia Culture exhibited advanced pottery making. Copper-smelting had also appeared and Qijia people made small red bronzewares, such as knives, awls, mirrors and finger rings. The economy was based on planting millet and raising pigs, dogs, goats, cows and horses. Qijia Culture had a patriarchal clan society featuring monogamous families and polygamy. Class polarization had emerged.

Siwa Culture (about 1400-700BCE) existed mainly in the east of Lanzhou in Gansu Province and the Qianshui River and Jingshui River valleys in Shaanxi Province. Siwa settlements were of significant size and held a mixture of citizens and slaves. The Siwa people produced pottery with distinctive saddle-shaped mouths and bronzeware including dagger-axes, spears, arrowheads, knives and bells.

 

Dong Yi Culture

Dong Yi Culture was the most advanced culture in Neolithic China and built by the Neolithic Shao Hao People, who lived in the Shandong Peninsula. First located in the Shandong Peninsula, its influence later spread to the lower reaches of the Yellow and Huai rivers. Dawenkou Dong Yi Culture spread out to the lower reach of the Changjiang River and even the southeastern China. Dong Yi Culture had greatly impacted Di Qiang Culture since the earliest time. Longshan Dong Yi Culture spread out to the inhabitation areas of Cishan-peiligang and Yangshao Di Qiang cultures and turned these regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 

Dong Yi Neolithic Culture contained five evolutionary phases:

Houli Culture (about 6400-5700BCE) was a millet-growing culture in the Shandong Peninsula during the Neolithic Age. The original site at Houli in the Linzi District of Shandong, was excavated from 1989 to 1990.

Beixin Culture (about 5300-4100BCE) was a millet-growing Neolithic culture in the Shandong Peninsula, existing in the southern and northern Taishan and Yimengshan Mountains in the west of the Jiaolai River, including today’s Yanzhou, Qufu, Tai’an, Pingyin, Changqing, Jinan, Zhangqiu, Zouping, Wenshang, Zhangdian, Qingzhou, Juxian, Linshu, Lanlin and Tengzhou. It also spread out to today’s Xuzhou and Lianyungang. The original site at Beixin, in Tengzhou of Shandong Province, was excavated from 1978 to 1979.

Dawenkou Culture (about 4100-2600BCE) existed primarily in the Shandong Peninsula, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu provinces. The typical site at Dawenkou, located in Tai’an of Shandong Province, was excavated in 1959, 1974 and 1978. As with Beixin and Houli cultures, the main food was millet.

Yueshi Culture (about 2000-1600BCE) appeared in the same areas as Longshan Culture. The original site at Yueshi, in Pingdu of Shandong Province, was excavated in 1959.

Longshan Culture (about 3200-1900BCE) was centered on the central and lower Yellow River, including Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi provinces, during the late Neolithic period. Longshan Culture was named after the town of Longshan in Jinan, Shandong Province, where the first site containing distinctive cultural artifacts was found in 1928 and excavated from 1930 to 1931.

Wheat was widely cultivated in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern Henan during Longshan Culture. An implied code of etiquette in Longshan Culture shows social stratification and formation of the nation.

Longshan artifacts reveal a high level of technical skill in pottery making, including the use of pottery wheels. Longshan Culture is noted for its highly polished egg-shell pottery. This type of thin-walled and polished black pottery has also been discovered in the Yangtze River Valley and as far away as today’s southeastern coast of China. It is a clear indication of how Neolithic agricultural sub-groups of the greater Longshan Culture spread out across the ancient boundaries of China.

The Neolithic population in China reached its peak during the time of Longshan Culture. Towards the end of the Longshan cultural period, the population decreased sharply; this was matched by the disappearance of high-quality black pottery from ritual burials.

Archaeologists and historians agree that so-called Longshan Culture is actually made up of different cultures from multiple sources. Longshan Culture is now identified as four different cultures according to inhabitation areas and appearance: Shandong Longshan Culture, Miaodigou Second Culture, Henan Longshan Culture and Shaanxi Longshan Culture. Only the Shandong Longshan Culture came purely from Yueshi (Dong Yi) Culture; the three other Longshan cultures were rooted in Di Qiang Culture, but deeply influenced by Dong Yi Culture, which had also influenced Di Qiang Culture earlier in the Neolithic age.

Shandong Longshan Culture (also called representative Longshan Culture, about 2500-2000BCE), was named after the town of Longshan in Jinan, Shandong Province, where the first archaeological site was found in 1928 and excavated from 1930 to 1931.

Miaodigou Second Culture (about 2900-2800BCE) was mainly distributed throughout western Henan Province and came from Yangshao Culture.

Henan Longshan Culture (about 2600-2000BCE) was mainly distributed in western, northern and eastern Henan Province and came from Miaodigou Second Culture.

Shaanxi Longshan Culture (about 2300-2000BCE) was mainly distributed in the Jinghe and Weihe River Valley in Shaanxi Province.

 

Dong Yi Culture in the Eastern Shandong (or Jiaodong) Peninsula (in the East of the Jiaolai River)

Many archaeological discoveries in the eastern Shandong (or Jiaodong) Peninsula suggest Dong Yi Culture began in the eastern Shandong as early as the western Shandong. While most archaeologists and scientists regard Chinese Neolithic culture in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern China as a big system called Dong Yi Culture, Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the eastern and western Shandong Peninsula had major differences from each other. An article from Yantai Museum, Archaeological Discoveries of the Neolithic Age in the Shandong Peninsula, compares aspects of the Neolithic culture in the eastern Shandong with the co-existing Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the western Shandong. [2] Many scholars thought the Neolithic culture in the eastern Shandong had its own special features and became an independent system based on its own resources.

Archaeologists agree that Baishi Culture (about 7,000 years BP), which was named after the village of Baishi of Yantai, whose altitude is 23 meters today and where the first site containing distinctive cultural artifacts was found in 2006, was a kind of coastal culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula and had influences to the Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula and Japanese archipelago. Baishi Culture was more developed than Banpo Culture (about 6800-6300 years BP) of Xi’an, which belonged to Yangshao Di Qiang Culture (about 5000-3000BCE). Baishi coastal culture and Beixin (about 5300-4100BCE), an inland culture in the western Shandong, were in the same period, had some similarities, but had major differences, suggesting that Baishi Culture had its own resources - the advanced earliest Neolithic coastal and maritime cultures along the coastline in the Jiaodong Peninsula. However, most sites of the earliest coastal and maritime cultures were drowned by sea water during the sea level rising, but Baishi site was the rare survivor. Baishi Coastal Culture proves that the Jiaodong Peninsula was the important birthplace of Chinese Neolithic coastal and maritime cultures, which had influences to the Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula, Japanese archipelago and the Kamchatka Peninsula, Aleutian Islands and Americas.

During the time of late Dawenkou and Longshan cultures, Shandong and Eastern China formed a large area of Dong Yi influence; however, Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula came from the Jiaodong People, while Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the western Shandong came from the Neolithic Shandong people who developed inland cultures. After Dawenkou-Longshan Culture spread out from today’s Shandong to the west, south and north to other people’s territories, it also had roots in other cultures.

There were many archaeological sites, which were in the periods of Dawenkou, Yueshi and Longshan Cultures in the Jiaodong Peninsula, including Maojiabu, Beigemen and Shiyuan in Laixi, Yujiadian in Laiyang, Simatai in Haiyang, Yangjiajuan and Shangtao in Qixia, Zijingshan, Qiujiazhuang and Dazhongjia in Penglai, Hekou in Rongcheng, Xiaoguan in Rushan, Tangjia in Longkou, Beizhuang and Dakou in Changdao. Many of these sites, which were in the period of Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE), show the form of early nation and have discovered bronze wares and jade projects, suggesting there were ancient nations, which were earlier than the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE), in the Jiaodong Peninsula.

 

Dong Yi Culture was the Most Advanced Culture in Neolithic China.

1)    The writing system of Dong Yi Culture is one of the oldest in Neolithic China. It was an important source of the Shang oracle bone script. Some of the characters continued to be used in modern Chinese writing, such as: [3]

The Changle Bone Inscriptions, found in Changle, Qingzhou, Shouguang, Huantai, Linzi and Zouping in Shandong Province, belonged to Longshan Culture and are regarded as recording characters used 1,000 years earlier than Shang oracle bone script. [4]

2)    The Shao Hao People were the inventors of arrows in China. Zuozhuan has the similar records as Shuowen Jiezi: Shibu, saying, “In ancient times, Yi Mu started making the bow and arrow.” Liji: Sheyi says, “Hui made the bow and Yi Mu made the arrow.”

3)    The Shao Hao People had great skill in making pottery. Longshan Culture’s eggshell black pottery is regarded as one of the best ancient Chinese pottery.

4)    The Shao Hao People were the earliest users of copper and iron in Neolithic China.

5)    The earliest human brain operation in Neolithic China was believed to be conducted about 5,000 years ago in Guangrao of Shandong. In an archaeological site of Dawenkou Culture in Fujia, Guangrao of Shandong, an adult male skull was discovered. A hole on the skull with very neat edges was believed by scientists to have been created by a craniotomy. The man recovered from the surgery and had lived for a long time after it, before he died.

6)    The Shao Hao People firstly developed etiquette in Neolithic China. A code of etiquette in Longshan Culture, implied by artifacts, such as Ceremonial architecture, sacrificial vessels (Eggshell black pottery and Ritual Jade) and animal bones used to practice divination, shows social stratification and formation of the Shao Hao nation. Clearly, the earliest nation of Neolithic China was built in the Shandong Peninsula by the Shao Hao People.

 

The Changjiang River Valley Cultural System included:

  • The rice-growing cultures in the lower reach of the Changjiang River, such as:

Hemudu Culture (about 5000-3300BCE) in Yuyao of Zhejiang; Majiabang Culture (about 5000-4000BCE) in Jiaxing of Zhejiang and its successors, Songze Culture (about 3800-2900BCE) in Qingpu District of Shanghai, and Liangzhu Culture (about 5300-4200BCE) near Taihu of Zhejiang.

Their main cultivated food was rice. Many painted-potteries and also a large numbers of black potteries, discovered in these sites, suggests they had been influenced by Dawenkou Culture, which had spread out from the Shandong Peninsula to the eastern Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu.

2)   The rice-growing cultures in the middle reach of the Changjiang River, such as:

Pengtoushan Culture (about 8200-7800BCE) in Li County of Hunan, Daxi Culture (about 4400-3300BCE) in Wushan County of Chongqing and Qujialing (about 2550-2195BCE) in Jingshan County of Hubei.

Their main cultivated food was rice. Potteries discovered in Pengtoushan are only red brown painted-pottery and in Daxi are mainly red painted-pottery, but in Qujialing are mainly black and grey pottery. Patterns of painted-potteries in Daxi show clear connection with Miaodigou type of Yangshao Culture, suggesting that Yangshao Culture had deeply influenced Daxi Culture. Black potteries discovered in Qujialing have some similarities with Longshan Culture, suggesting that Longshan Culture had deeply influenced Qujialing Culture and its successors.

 

Other Cultural Systems included:

  1. The millet-growing cultures in the southeastern Da Xing’an Ling Mountains, include:

Xiaohexi Culture (about 6500BCE) in Aohan Banner; Xinglongwa Culture (about 6200-5400BCE) in Xinglongwa Village of Baoguotu Township in Aohan Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and its successors, Zhaojiagou Culture (about 5200-4400BCE) in Aohan Banner and Hongshan Culture (about 4000-3000BCE), which have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning. Their main cultivated food was millet.

Xinglongwa sites discover the earliest jade objects and a stone pile with dragon shape. Clay figurines, including figurines of pregnant women, are found throughout Hongshan sites. Hongshan burial artifacts include small copper rings and some of the earliest known examples of jade working, especially its jade pig dragons and embryo dragons. The dragon shape stone pile in Xinglongwa and jade dragons in Hongshan suggest the earliest dragon worship in ancient China.

  1. Dalongtan Culture (about 4500BCE)situated at Long’an County of Guangxi Province. Main cultivated food was rice.
  2. Dabenkeng Culture (about 4000-3000BCE) appeared in northern Taiwan and spread around the coast of the island, as well as the Penghu islands to the west. The rope figure potteries found in Dabenkeng are similar with Hemudu, Majiabang and Liangzhu. German archaeologist Robert Heine Geldern thought that Dabenkeng Culture also spread from Taiwan to Philippines and Polynesia.
  3. Sanxingdui Culture (about 12000-3000BCE)

The site of Sanxingdui is located in the city of Guanghan, 40km from Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Archaeologists have discovered remains of human activity in Sanxingdui about 12,000 years BP. The archaeological site of Sanxingdui contains remains of Bronze Age culture. The culture of the Sanxingdui site is thought to be divided into several phases. The Sanxingdui Culture (about 5,000-3,000 years BP), which corresponds to periods II-III of the site, was an obscure civilization in southern China. This culture was contemporaneous with the Shang Dynasty. However, they developed a different method of bronze-making from the Shang. The first phase, which corresponds to Period I of the site, belongs to the Baodun and in the final phase (period IV) the culture merged with the Ba and Chu cultures. The culture was a strong central theocracy with trade links that brought bronze from Yin and ivory from Southeast Asia.

The most obvious difference, between Sanxingdui and the Chinese Bronze Age cultures of Henan, is the presence at Sanxingdui of a figural bronze tradition – statues, heads, and faces - without precedent elsewhere in China. The Sanxingdui Culture ended, possibly either as a result of natural disasters (evidence of massive flooding has been found), or invasion by a different culture.

Archaeologists have discovered the archaeological sites of jinsha near Chengdu, 50 kilometers to Sanxingdui. The cultural relics of Jinsha Culture (about 1250-650BCE) share similarities with Sanxingdui, but some of Jinsha’s relics share similarities with Liangzhu Culture (5300-4200BCE) in the lower reach of the Changjiang River. Historians believe that the Jinsha People came from Sanxingdui, but had influenced by the Changjiang River Valley cultures.

 

Shanhaijing, the Classic of Mountains and Seas

Shanhaijing, or Classic of Mountains and Seas, is a classic Chinese text compiling early geography and myth. Some people believe it is the first geography and history book in China. It is largely a fabulous geographical and cultural account of pre-Qin China as well as a collection of Chinese mythology. The book is about 31,000 words long and is divided into eighteen sections. It describes, among other things, over 550 mountains and 300 rivers. Versions of the text have existed since the fourth century BCE, but the present form was not reached until the early Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE), a few centuries later.

It is also commonly accepted that Shanhaijing is a compilation of four original books:

1): Wu Zang Shan Jing, or Classic of the Five Hidden Mountains, written in the Great Yu’s Time (before 2200BCE);

2): Hai Wai Si Jing, or Four Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas, written during the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE);

3): Da Huang Si Jing, or Four Classic of the Great Wilderness, written during the Shang Dynasty (about 1600-1046BCE); and

4): Hai Nei Wu Jing, or Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas, written during the Zhou Dynasty (about 1046-256BCE).

The first known editor of Shanhaijing was Liu Xiang (77-6BCE) in the Han Dynasty, who was particularly well-known for his bibliographic work in cataloging and editing the extensive imperial library. [1] Later, Guo Pu (276-324CE), a scholar from the Jin Dynasty (also known as Sima Jin, 265-420CE), further annotated the work.

Where was the Great Wilderness recorded in Shanhaijing? According to Shanhaijing, the Great Wilderness was a large tract of savage land that was unfit for human habitation and was in the south of the Mobile Desert, today’s Taklamakan Desert. Clearly, it included today’s Tibetan Plateau, west areas of the Sichuan Basin and western Yungui Plateau. Shanhaijing also mentioned “east wilderness” and “other wilderness,” which were not today’s Tibetan Plateau, but other savage lands that were unfit for human habitation.

In Shanhaijing, the River refers to the Yellow River, which rises in the northern Bayankala Mountains, and the Jiang refers to the Changjiang River, which rises in the southern Bayankala Mountains which is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

The Mobile Desert in Shanhaijing refers to today’s Taklamakan Desert, the Asia’s biggest and world’s second biggest mobile desert, while the Rub Al Khal Desert in the Arabian Peninsula is the world’s biggest mobile desert.

The Chishui River in Shanhaijing was located in the east of the Mobile Desert, today’s Taklamakan Desert, and the west of the Northwest Sea. Shanhaijing uses “sea” to name saltwater lake and uses “deep pool” or “lake” to name freshwater lake. The Northwest Sea is today’s Qinghai Lake. The Qinghai Lake, also called Kokonor Lake, is a saltwater lake and used to be very big, but it had reduced to 1,000 kilometers in perimeter in the North Wei Dynasty (386-557CE) and kept reducing to 400 kilometers in perimeter in the Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) and 360 kilometers in perimeter today.

Many current scholars believe that Mount Buzhou is located in the eastern Pamirs Plateau, to the west of the Kunlun Mountains, but the specific location is not confirmed. 

 

Shanhaijing’s records of Neolithic Chinese People

Five Biggest Groups of Neolithic Chinese People had Lived in the Pamirs Plateau before They Moved to other Places of China.

The Classic of the Mountains: West records that Huang Di (Yellow King) lived in Mount Mi. The word “Huang (yellow)” suggests that Huang Di had a clear Mongoloid racial characteristic - yellow skin. It also records that Shao Hao was respected as Bai Di, “White King” or “White Ancestor-god,” by people in Mount Changliu. The word “Bai (white)” suggests that Shao Hao had a clear Caucasoid racial characteristic - white skin. The fact that the Chang Liu People regarded Shao Hao as their “White King” or “White Ancestor-god” indicates that the Chang Liu People were offspring of the Shao Hao. Mount Mi and Changliu were located in today’s Pamirs Plateau. Today, we shall comprehend that Huang Di refers to Huang Di’s group due to they living in the matriarchal clan society before 8,000 years BP, so did Yan Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East tells that Shu Shi, Zhuan Xu’s son, lived near Mount Buzhou, also The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West says, “The Yu People (Di Jun’s offspring) fought with the Gong Gong People (Zhuan Xu’s offspring) in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou,” suggesting Zhuan Xu’s group lived near Mount Buzhou in the Pamirs.

Shanhaijing does not give information about Di Jun living in the Pamirs Plateau, but records many groups of the Di Jun’s offspring living in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau, including King Shun’s group and the Yu People, who lived near Mount Buzhou. Clearly, Di Jun’s group used to live near Mount Buzhou, their offspring moved to the northern Tibetan Plateau and had a lot of wars with Zhuan Xu’s offspring.

Shanhaijing does not contain any detail of Yan Di living in the Pamirs Plateau, but clearly records that Ling Jia, Yan Di’s great-grandson, and Hu Ren, Yan Di’s great-great-grandson, lived in the west of the Taklamakan Desert. Drawing inferences about other cases from Huang Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun, we can say that Yan Di’s group used to live near the Pamirs Plateau, later their offspring moved to the west of the Taklamakan Desert.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West tells us, “In the west of the Qinghai Lake and a corner of the Tibetan Plateau, there was Mount Buzhou. There were ten spirits (gods). It said that Nüwa’s intestines scattered into ten spirits; they lived in millet fields and slept on roads.” “Ten spirits” came from Nüwa and under her jurisdiction, lived near Mount Buzhou. This reveals that all ancient Chinese people, including the five biggest groups, regarded Nüwa as the Goddess since their early time.

Due to all ancient groups of Chinese people used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, they might have moved to the south areas of the Himalayan Mountains to the Indo-Gangetic Plain and contributed as some origins of the Ancient Indus Valley civilizations (about 3000-1700BCE). In this article, I will not discuss this. I will only talk about those ancient groups of people who moved to China and built ancient Chinese civilizations.

 

The Second Gathering Areas of Neolithic Chinese People were the West of the Qinghai Lake, East of the Taklamakan Desert and North of the Tibetan Plateau.

Shanhaijing records that many groups of people lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake and north of the Tibetan Plateau, including offspring of the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Shao Hao, Yan Di and other peoples, such as the Xi (west) Zhou, Bei (north) Qi and Xuan Yuan People.

 

In the west of the Taklamakan Desert, there lived:

1)  People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Western Queen Mother lived in Mount Yu.

The Hu Ren (also called Di Ren) People were the ancestors of the Di Qiang People. Yan Di’s grandson was the father of Ling Jia; Ling Jia was the father of Hu Ren.

Yu Fu was the son of Zhuan Xu. Later the Yu Fu People turned their totem from snake (or animals) to fish and recovered from death.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Mountains: West -

The Western Queen Mother lived in Mount Yu; the Xuan Yuan People lived in the Xuan Yuan Mound; Huang Di lived in Mount Mi and Shao Hao lived in Mount Changliu. They were all in today’s Pamirs Plateau.

 

In the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, near Mount Buzhou, there lived:

 Shu Shi, son of Zhuan Xu, recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West. Also “The Yu People (Di Jun’s offspring) fought with the Gong Gong People (Zhuan Xu’s offspring) in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou.”

 

In the west of the Chishui River and east of the Taklamakan Desert, there lived:

1)  People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Bei (north) Di People were offspring of Shi Jun, who was grandson of Huang Di.

Tai Zi Chang Qin, who lived in Mount Yao and started making music, was the son of Zhu Rong. Zhuan Xu was the father of Lao Tong; Lao Tong was the father of Zhu Rong. Later, the Zhu Rong People moved to the east of the Chishui River and lived in the far south of the Di Mountain, recorded in The Classic of Regions Beyond the Sea: South.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North -

The Zhong Bian People were descendants of Zhong Bian, son of Zhuan Xu.

 

In the northern Tibetan Plateau, there lived:

1)  People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Xuan Yuan People moved from the Xuan Yuan Mound in the Pamirs Plateau to the northern Tibetan Plateau and their life-span was more than 800 years. (In ancient China, people often used eight, eighty or eight hundreds to mean a lot.)

The San Mian People were descendants of San Mian, son of Zhuan Xu.

The Ye People, who lived in the westernmost place of the Tibetan Plateau, were offspring of Li. Zhuan Xu was the father of Lao Tong; Lao Tong was the father of Chong and Li.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North -

Shao Hao was the father of Wei, who had only one eye in the center of his face. The Wei People, with the surname of Wei, ate millet.

The Bei (north) Qi People (Jiang Zi-ya’s ancestors).

The Shu Chu People were descendants of Shu Chu, son of Zhuan Xu.

The Quan Rong People ate meat. Huang Di was the father of Miao Long; Miao Long was the father of Rong Wu; Rong Wu was the father of Nong Ming; Nong Ming was the father of Bai Quan, also called Quan Rong.

The Kua Fu People. Hou Tu was the father of Sin; Sin was the father of Kua Fu.

The Ba People (descended from Ba, Huang Di’s daughter).

3)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South

King Shun’s group (Di Jun’s offspring) bathed in the Chong Yuan Lake.

 

In the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Chishui River, there lived the Xi (west) Zhou People (the Zhou Dynasty’s ancestors) with the surname of Ji, who ate millet, recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West.

Shu Jun started practicing cultivating grains. Di Jun was the father of Hou Ji and Tai Xi; Tai Xi was the father of Shu Jun.

Yu Hao was the father of Yan Er. Yan Er was the father of Wu Gu. Wu Gu was the father of Ji Wu Min. Both the Yan Er People, who ate millet, and the Ji Wu Min People, who ate fish, had the surname of Ren.

The Guan Tou People and Miao Min People had the surname of Li. Zhuan Xu was the ancestor of Guan Tou; The Guan Tou were the ancestors of Miao Min.

Later the Guan Tou People moved to the south of today’s Tibetan Plateau and fish in the sea (highly possible today’s sea near Dhaka of Bangladesh), recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South. Gun’s wife Shi Jing gave birth to Yan Rong; Yan Rong was the father of Guan Tou.

 

Shanhaijing does not give time sequence when recording locations of ancient groups of people, but gives us clues to find out the time sequence. These clues lead to a conclusion that Huang Di’s, Yan Di’s, Zhuan Xu’s, Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s groups spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert, excepting Yan Di’s offspring, who spread out to the west and north of the Taklamakan Desert; Yu Fu’s group (offspring of Zhuan Xu) also moved to that area.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North tells that Wei, son of Shao Hao, lived in the north of the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting the Shao Hao People spread out from Mount Changliu in the Pamirs Plateau to the north of the Tibetan Plateau.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North says that Zhuan Xu and his nine wives were buried on Mount Fuyu, which was located between the Yellow River beyond the Qinghai Lake, suggesting that the Zhuan Xu People spread out from the eastern Pamirs to Mount Fuyu in today’s Aemye Ma-chhen Range.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South says King Shun lived in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau; also Di Jun (Di Ku), King Yao, King Shun and Shu Jun (grandson of Di Jun) were buried in the same place on the Yueshan Mountain. The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West says the Yu People fought with the Gong Gong People in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou; also Shu Jun’s group lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Chishui River. These records hint us that the Di Jun People spread out from the Pamirs to the northern Tibetan Plateau and begat many groups, such as the Yao, Shun and Yu People, also the Hou Ji, Tai Xi and Shu Jun People, who lived in the east of the Chishui River and west of the Qinghai Lake.

Huang Di’s group lived in Mount Mi in the Pamirs Plateau, while their offspring, the Miao Long, Rong Wu, Nong Ming, Bai Quan, or Quan (Xi) Rong, lived in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and the Shi Jun and Bei (north) Di lived in the west of the Chishui River.

The Xuan Yuan People spread out from the Xuan Yuan Mound in the Pamirs Plateau to the northern Tibetan Plateau.

 

Wars recorded in Shanhaijing.

Shanhaijing records many wars between different groups of people and these wars led to some agreements of their shifting routes.

One of these famous wars happened between the Chi You People (offspring of Zhuan Xu) and the Ying Long People (offspring of Huang Di).

Shanhaijing records Zhuan Xu had at least nine wives and many sons, more than Yan Di, Huang Di, Di Jun and Shao Hao. The followings are Zhuan Xu’s sons: Yu Fu, Shu Shi, Shu Chu, San Mian, Zhong Bian, Lao Tong, who was the father of Zhu Rong (who was Tai Zi Chang Qin’s father), Chong and Li (who was Ye’s father). The Zhuan Xu’s offspring also include Hou Tu, Sin’s father and Kua Fu’s grandfather, also Gun, who and his wife Shi Jing were the parents of Yan Rong, Guan Tou’s father and Miao Min’s grandfather. There were many groups of people who were offspring of Zhuan Xu’s group and they could outnumber others when they lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake.

The Chi You People had a sense of “safety in numbers” and launched an offensive to the Huang Di People, who had fewer groups. The Ying Long People took up the challenge and killed the Chi You People with the help of the Ba People (offspring of Huang Di’s daughter Ba). Later, the Kua Fu People (offspring of Zhuan Xu) moved to the east and became far away from other Zhuan Xu’s offspring, the Ying Long seized the chance and killed the Kua Fu People. After killing the Chi You and Kua Fu, the Ying Long were afraid of retribution from Zhuan Xu’s offspring, they escaped to the south and later moved to Mound Xiong Li Tu Qiu in the north of the eastern mountains.

Another famous war happened between the Ba People and Shu Jun People (offspring of Di Jun). After the Ying Long went to the south, the Ba People, who had come to help the Ying Long, lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake. They had conflicts with the Shu Jun People. After negotiation, the Ba People believed their Ancestor-god Huang Di asked them to move to the north of the Chishui River. These stories hint us that ancient groups of Chinese people made an agreement after these wars, that the Huang Di’s offspring would live in the north of the Chishui River and move to the northern areas, matching Shanhaijing’s records of their later inhabitation areas.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South records, “The Yu People launched an offensive against the Yun Yu People in the Yun Yu Mountain in the northern Tibetan Plateau.” The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North says, “The Yu People killed Xiang Yao, Gong Gong’s minister, in the north of the Kunlun Mountains.” Also The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West tells, “The Yu People fought with the Gong Gong People in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou.” Clearly, the Di Jun’s and Zhuan Xu’s offspring fought a lot when they lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake. After these wars, they might have reached an agreement - Zhuan Xu’s offspring would go to the south, while Di Jun’s offspring would go to east. Such migration routes matched Shanhaijing’s records of their later inhabitation areas.

“Shao Hao nurturing the immature Zhuan Xu and the Zhuan Xu discarding their musical instruments - Qin and Se,” recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East, hint us that the Shao Hao People mastered the most advanced sciences and technologies and the Zhuan Xu People built close relationship with them in their early time, learned eagerly from them and discarded musical instruments, which were first invented by Tai Zi Chang Qin. Due to the Shao Hao mastering most advanced technologies, all other peoples would like to build close relationships with them, therefore, Shanhaijing has no records of Shao Hao’s offspring fighting with other peoples in their early time.

 

Neolithic Chinese People spread out from the Pamirs to the West of the Qinghai Lake and East of the Taklamakan Desert, then to other places.

The Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao People, and some other peoples, such as the Xuan Yuan, Xi (west) Zhou and Bei (north) Qi People, spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert, lived nomadic lifestyle side by side, hunting animal, collecting millet and learning from each other. Within five to six generations, they had mastered many new sciences and technologies, Tai Zi Chang Qin (Zhuan Xu’s great-grandson) was the progenitor of making music instruments and Shu Jun (Di Jun’s grandson) was the progenitor of practicing cultivating grains.

After some wars, ancient Chinese people made some agreements. The Huang Di People moved to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas. Most of the Zhuan Xu People lived near the Tibetan Plateau and later some of them moved to the south, such as the Zhu Rong People, reached the Sichuan Basin, such as the Yu Fu People, and the Bay of Bengal, such as the Guan Tou People. The Shao Hao and Di Jun People moved to the east to the Weihe River Valley.

Of course, there were also possibly very few groups from the Di Jun, Zhuan Xu and Shao Hao going to the north, or going to the south; due to the fact that they were not the majority, we would not discuss them.

 

The Third Gathering Area of Neolithic Chinese People was the Weihe River Valley.

The Shao Hao and Di Jun People spread out to the Weihe River Valley.

The Zhuan Xu People, who lived in the Aemye Ma-chhen Range, were very near the Weihe River Valley and had the ability to move to the Weihe Plain. However, due to the fact that the Zhuan Xu People had many wars with the Di Jun, it is highly possible that the Di Jun People did not allow the Zhuan Xu People to enter the Weihe Plain. This matches Shanhaijing having no records of the Zhuan Xu People living in the central and eastern China.

To be continued to Part IIhttp://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/hua-xia-yan-huang2

Other Scholarly Papers Presented and Published by Soleilmavis.

http://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/scholarly-papers-presente...

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