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(Part I) The Nü He People were the Funders of the Earliest Neolithic Chinese Astronomy, Calendar, Maritime Culture and “He” Culture.

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo in Jan 2019. 

Abstract:                                                                       

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Yan Di and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups of people, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, later spread to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. The Shao Hao’s offspring spread out from the west of the Qinghai Lake to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records. Shanhaijing’s records and archaeological discoveries reveal that the Nü He People, one group of the Shao Hao People, was called Mother of Yue (moon), lived in the eastern Shandong Peninsula, held the most advanced science and technologies and built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures during the Neolithic Age. It is believed that the Nü He People were the funders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy, Calendar and Maritime Culture. The Nü He People were also the root of Chinese “He” Culture, which is the quintessence of Chinese Han Culture.

 

Keywords: Shanhaijing; Neolithic China, Di Jun, the Great Yu, Erlitou, Ancient Chinese Civilization

 

Introduction

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Yan Di and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups of people, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, later spread to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age.

This article introduces main Chinese Neolithic cultures, the Coastal culture in the eastern Shandong Peninsula, Shanhaijing and its records of the Shao Hao and Nü He People. The Shao Hao’s offspring spread out from the west of the Qinghai Lake to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records. Shanhaijing’s records and archaeological discoveries reveal that the Nü He People, one group of the Shao Hao People, was called Mother of Yue (moon), lived in the eastern Shandong Peninsula, held the most advanced science and technologies and built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures during the Neolithic Age. It is believed that the Nü He People were the funders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy, Calendar and Maritime Culture. The Nü He People were also the root of Chinese “He” Culture, which is the quintessence of Chinese Han Culture.

 

Ancient Chinese Civilizations

Archaeologists and historians commonly believe that Neolithic China had two main ancient cultural systems: the Yellow River Valley Cultural System and the Changjiang River Valley Cultural System. Starting from the lower reaches areas of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, these cultures spread to surrounding areas.

The Yellow River Valley Cultural System, which included Di Qiang and Dong Yi cultures, was established on millet cultivation in the early and middle stages of the Neolithic Age and divided from wheat cultivation in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern Henan Province and millet cultivation in other areas, during the period of Longshan Culture (about 3200-1900BCE).

Most small regional cultures of ancient China had faded by the end of Neolithic Age, including the Changjiang River Valley Cultural System. However, the Yellow River Valley Culture became the mainstay of ancient Chinese civilization and developed to a much higher level. 

Di Qiang Culture

Di Qiang Neolithic Culture contained seven phases:

Laoguantai Culture (about 6000-5000BCE) existed in the Weihe River Valley, or Guanzhong Plain, in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Laoguantai people lived predominantly by primitive agriculture, mainly planting millet.

Qin’an Dadiwan First Culture (about 6200-3000BCE) included pre-Yangshao Culture, Yangshao Culture and Changshan Under-layer Culture. Dating from at least 6000BCE, Qin’an First Culture is the earliest Neolithic culture so far discovered in archaeological digs in the northwestern China. In a site of Dadiwan First Culture in Tianshui of Gansu in the west of the Guanzhong Plain, from around 6200BCE, archaeologists found the earliest cultivated millet.

Yangshao Culture (about 5000-3000BCE), also called Painted-Pottery Culture, existed in the middle reach of the Yellow River. Centered in Huashan, it reached east to eastern Henan Province, west to Gansu and Qinghai provinces, north to the Hetao area, the Great Band of Yellow River and the Great Wall near Inner Mongolia, and south to the Jianghan Plain. Its core areas were Guanzhong and northern Shaanxi Province. Like Laoguantai Culture, it was based predominantly on primitive agriculture, mainly the planting of millet.

Cishan-peiligang Culture (about 6200-4600BCE) existed in modern-day Henan Province and southern Hebei Province. Yangshao Culture later developed from this culture. The people subsisted on agriculture and livestock husbandry, planting millet and raising pigs.

Majiayao Culture (about 3000-2000BCE) was distributed throughout central and southern Gansu Province, centered in the Loess Plateau of western Gansu Province and spreading east to the upper reaches of the Weihe River, west to the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor and northeastern Qinghai Province, north to the southern Ningxia autonomous region and south Sichuan Province. From Majiayao Culture came the earliest Chinese bronzes and early writing characters, which evolved from Yangshao Culture’s written language. Maijayao people planted millet and raised pigs, dogs and goats.

Qijia Culture (about 2000-1000BCE) is also known as Early Bronze Culture. Its inhabitation areas were essentially coincident with Majiayao Culture. It had roots not only in Majiayao Culture, but also influences from cultures in the east of Longshan and the central Shaanxi Plain. Qijia Culture exhibited advanced pottery making. Copper-smelting had also appeared and Qijia people made small red bronzewares, such as knives, awls, mirrors and finger rings. The economy was based on planting millet and raising pigs, dogs, goats, cows and horses. Qijia Culture had a patriarchal clan society featuring monogamous families and polygamy. Class polarization had emerged.

Siwa Culture (about 1400-700BCE) existed mainly in the east of Lanzhou in Gansu Province and the Qianshui River and Jingshui River valleys in Shaanxi Province. Siwa settlements were of significant size and held a mixture of citizens and slaves. The Siwa people produced pottery with distinctive saddle-shaped mouths and bronzeware including dagger-axes, spears, arrowheads, knives and bells.

 

Dong Yi Culture

Dong Yi Culture was the most advanced culture in Neolithic China and built by the Neolithic Shao Hao People, who lived in the Shandong Peninsula. First located in the Shandong Peninsula, its influence later spread to the lower reaches of the Yellow and Huai rivers. Dawenkou Dong Yi Culture spread out to the lower reach of the Changjiang River and even the southeastern China. Dong Yi Culture had greatly impacted Di Qiang Culture since the earliest time. Longshan Dong Yi Culture spread out to the inhabitation areas of Cishan-peiligang and Yangshao Di Qiang cultures and turned these regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 

Dong Yi Neolithic Culture contained five evolutionary phases:

Houli Culture (about 6400-5700BCE) was a millet-growing culture in the Shandong Peninsula during the Neolithic Age. The original site at Houli in the Linzi District of Shandong, was excavated from 1989 to 1990.

Beixin Culture (about 5300-4100BCE) was a millet-growing Neolithic culture in the Shandong Peninsula, existing in the southern and northern Taishan and Yimengshan Mountains in the west of the Jiaolai River, including today’s Yanzhou, Qufu, Tai’an, Pingyin, Changqing, Jinan, Zhangqiu, Zouping, Wenshang, Zhangdian, Qingzhou, Juxian, Linshu, Lanlin and Tengzhou. It also spread out to today’s Xuzhou and Lianyungang. The original site at Beixin, in Tengzhou of Shandong Province, was excavated from 1978 to 1979.

Dawenkou Culture (about 4100-2600BCE) existed primarily in the Shandong Peninsula, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu provinces. The typical site at Dawenkou, located in Tai’an of Shandong Province, was excavated in 1959, 1974 and 1978. As with Beixin and Houli cultures, the main food was millet.

Yueshi Culture (about 2000-1600BCE) appeared in the same areas as Longshan Culture. The original site at Yueshi, in Pingdu of Shandong Province, was excavated in 1959.

Longshan Culture (about 3200-1900BCE) was centered on the central and lower Yellow River, including Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi provinces, during the late Neolithic period. Longshan Culture was named after the town of Longshan in Jinan, Shandong Province, where the first site containing distinctive cultural artifacts was found in 1928 and excavated from 1930 to 1931.

Wheat was widely cultivated in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern Henan during Longshan Culture. An implied code of etiquette in Longshan Culture shows social stratification and formation of the nation.

Longshan artifacts reveal a high level of technical skill in pottery making, including the use of pottery wheels. Longshan Culture is noted for its highly polished egg-shell pottery. This type of thin-walled and polished black pottery has also been discovered in the Yangtze River Valley and as far away as today’s southeastern coast of China. It is a clear indication of how Neolithic agricultural sub-groups of the greater Longshan Culture spread out across the ancient boundaries of China.

The Neolithic population in China reached its peak during the time of Longshan Culture. Towards the end of the Longshan cultural period, the population decreased sharply; this was matched by the disappearance of high-quality black pottery from ritual burials.

Archaeologists and historians agree that so-called Longshan Culture is actually made up of different cultures from multiple sources. Longshan Culture is now identified as four different cultures according to inhabitation areas and appearance: Shandong Longshan Culture, Miaodigou Second Culture, Henan Longshan Culture and Shaanxi Longshan Culture. Only the Shandong Longshan Culture came purely from Yueshi (Dong Yi) Culture; the three other Longshan cultures were rooted in Di Qiang Culture, but deeply influenced by Dong Yi Culture, which had also influenced Di Qiang Culture earlier in the Neolithic age.

Shandong Longshan Culture (also called representative Longshan Culture, about 2500-2000BCE), was named after the town of Longshan in Jinan, Shandong Province, where the first archaeological site was found in 1928 and excavated from 1930 to 1931.

Miaodigou Second Culture (about 2900-2800BCE) was mainly distributed throughout western Henan Province and came from Yangshao Culture.

Henan Longshan Culture (about 2600-2000BCE) was mainly distributed in western, northern and eastern Henan Province and came from Miaodigou Second Culture.

Shaanxi Longshan Culture (about 2300-2000BCE) was mainly distributed in the Jinghe and Weihe River Valley in Shaanxi Province.

 

Dong Yi Culture in the Eastern Shandong Peninsula, or Jiaodong Peninsula (in the east of the Jiaolai River)

Many archaeological discoveries in the eastern Shandong Peninsula, or Jiaodong Peninsula, suggest Dong Yi Culture began in the eastern Shandong as early as the western Shandong. While most archaeologists and scientists regard Chinese Neolithic culture in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern China as a big system called Dong Yi Culture, Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the eastern and western Shandong Peninsula had major differences from each other. An article from Yantai Museum, Archaeological Discoveries of the Neolithic Age in the Shandong Peninsula, compares aspects of the Neolithic culture in the eastern Shandong with the co-existing Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the western Shandong. [2] Many scholars thought the Neolithic culture in the eastern Shandong had its own special features and became an independent system based on its own resources.

Archaeologists agree that Baishi Culture (about 7,000 years BP), which was named after the village of Baishi of Yantai, whose altitude is 23 meters today and where the first site containing distinctive cultural artifacts was found in 2006, was a kind of coastal culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula and had influences to the Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula and Japanese archipelago. Baishi Culture was more developed than Banpo Culture (about 6800-6300 years BP) of Xi’an, which belonged to Yangshao Di Qiang Culture (about 5000-3000BCE). Baishi, a coastal culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula, and Beixin (about 5300-4100BCE), an inland culture in the western Shandong, were in the same period, had some similarities, but had major differences, suggesting that Baishi Culture had its own resources - the advanced earliest Neolithic coastal and maritime cultures along the coastline in the Jiaodong Peninsula, but were drowned by sea water during the sea level rising. Baishi Coastal Culture proves that the Jiaodong Peninsula was the important birthplace of Chinese Neolithic coastal and maritime cultures, which had influences to the Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula and Japanese archipelago, also to the Kamchatka Peninsula, Aleutian Islands and Americas.

During the time of late Dawenkou and Longshan cultures, Shandong and Eastern China formed a large area of Dong Yi influence; however, Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula came from the Jiaodong People, while Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the western Shandong came from the Neolithic Shandong people who developed inland cultures. After Dawenkou-Longshan Culture spread out from today’s Shandong to the west, south and north to other people’s territories, it also had roots in other cultures.

There were many archaeological sites, which were in the periods of Dawenkou, Yueshi and Longshan Cultures in the Jiaodong Peninsula, including Maojiabu, Beigemen and Shiyuan in Laixi, Yujiadian in Laiyang, Simatai in Haiyang, Yangjiajuan and Shangtao in Qixia, Zijingshan, Qiujiazhuang and Dazhongjia in Penglai, Hekou in Rongcheng, Xiaoguan in Rushan, Tangjia in Longkou, Beizhuang and Dakou in Changdao. Many of these sites, which were in the period of Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE), show the form of early nation and have discovered bronze wares and jade projects, suggesting there were ancient nations in the Jiaodong Peninsula earlier than the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE).

 

Dong Yi Culture was the Most Advanced Culture in Neolithic China.

1)    The writing system of Dong Yi Culture is one of the oldest in Neolithic China. It was an important source of the Shang oracle bone script. Some of the characters continued to be used in modern Chinese writing, such as: [3]

 

 

The Changle Bone Inscriptions, found in Changle, Qingzhou, Shouguang, Huantai, Linzi and Zouping in Shandong Province, belonged to Longshan Culture and are regarded as recording characters used 1,000 years earlier than Shang oracle bone script. [4]

2)    The Shao Hao People were the inventors of arrows in China. Zuozhuan has the similar records as Shuowen Jiezi: Shibu, saying, “In ancient times, Yi Mu started making the bow and arrow.” Liji: Sheyi says, “Hui made the bow and Yi Mu made the arrow.”

3)    The Shao Hao People had great skill in making pottery. Longshan Culture’s eggshell black pottery is regarded as one of the best ancient Chinese pottery.

4)    The Shao Hao People were the earliest users of copper and iron in Neolithic China.

5)    The earliest human brain operation in Neolithic China was believed to be conducted about 5,000 years ago in Guangrao of Shandong. In an archaeological site of Dawenkou Culture in Fujia, Guangrao of Shandong, an adult male skull was discovered. A hole on the skull with very neat edges was believed by scientists to have been created by a craniotomy. The man recovered from the surgery and had lived for a long time after it, before he died.

6)    The Shao Hao People firstly developed etiquette in Neolithic China. A code of etiquette in Longshan Culture, implied by artifacts, such as Ceremonial architecture, sacrificial vessels (Eggshell black pottery and Ritual Jade) and animal bones used to practice divination, shows social stratification and formation of the Shao Hao nation. Clearly, the earliest nation of Neolithic China was built in the Shandong Peninsula by the Shao Hao People.

 

Shanhaijing, the Classic of Mountains and Seas

Shanhaijing, or Classic of Mountains and Seas, is a classic Chinese text compiling early geography and myth. Some people believe it is the first geography and history book in China. It is largely a fabulous geographical and cultural account of pre-Qin China as well as a collection of Chinese mythology. The book is about 31,000 words long and is divided into eighteen sections. It describes, among other things, over 550 mountains and 300 rivers. Versions of the text have existed since the fourth century BCE, but the present form was not reached until the early Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE), a few centuries later.

It is also commonly accepted that Shanhaijing is a compilation of four original books:

1): Wu Zang Shan Jing, or Classic of the Five Hidden Mountains, written in the Great Yu’s Time (before 2200BCE);

2): Hai Wai Si Jing, or Four Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas, written during the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE);

3): Da Huang Si Jing, or Four Classic of the Great Wilderness, written during the Shang Dynasty (about 1600-1046BCE); and

4): Hai Nei Wu Jing, or Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas, written during the Zhou Dynasty (about 1046-256BCE).

The first known editor of Shanhaijing was Liu Xiang (77-6BCE) in the Han Dynasty, who was particularly well-known for his bibliographic work in cataloging and editing the extensive imperial library. [1] Later, Guo Pu (276-324CE), a scholar from the Jin Dynasty (also known as Sima Jin, 265-420CE), further annotated the work.

Where was the Great Wilderness recorded in Shanhaijing? According to Shanhaijing, the Great Wilderness was a large tract of savage land that was unfit for human habitation and was in the south of the Mobile Desert, today’s Taklamakan Desert. Clearly, it included today’s Tibetan Plateau, west areas of the Sichuan Basin and western Yungui Plateau. Shanhaijing also mentioned “east wilderness” and “other wilderness,” which were not today’s Tibetan Plateau, but other savage lands that were unfit for human habitation.

In Shanhaijing, the River refers to the Yellow River, which rises in the northern Bayankala Mountains, and the Jiang refers to the Changjiang River, which rises in the southern Bayankala Mountains which is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

The Mobile Desert in Shanhaijing refers to today’s Taklamakan Desert, the Asia’s biggest and world’s second biggest mobile desert, while the Rub Al Khal Desert in the Arabian Peninsula is the world’s biggest mobile desert.

The Chishui River in Shanhaijing was located in the east of the Mobile Desert, today’s Taklamakan Desert, and the west of the Northwest Sea. Shanhaijing uses “sea” to name saltwater lake and uses “deep pool” or “lake” to name freshwater lake. The Northwest Sea is today’s Qinghai Lake. The Qinghai Lake, also called Kokonor Lake, is a saltwater lake and used to be very big, but it had reduced to 1,000 kilometers in perimeter in the North Wei Dynasty (386-557CE) and kept reducing to 400 kilometers in perimeter in the Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) and 360 kilometers in perimeter today.

Many current scholars believe that Mount Buzhou is located in the eastern Pamirs Plateau, to the west of the Kunlun Mountains, but the specific location is not confirmed.

 

Shanhaijing’s records of the Shao Hao and Nü He People

Shao Hao’s group first lived in Mount Changliu in the western Pamirs Plateau, their offspring moved to the west of the Qinghai Lake, later spread out to the lower reach of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula, much later also spread out to other places along the coastlines. The literal meaning of the Chinese characters “Shao Hao” was “Subordinate of Heaven.”

 

Shanhaijing clearly identified the following people who were from the Shao Hao People.

The Classic of the Mountains: West records:

“From Mount Le You 350 li to the northwest is Mount Yu, where the Western Queen Mother lived in; another 480 li to the west is Xuan Yuan Mound; another 300 li to the west is Mount Ji Shi; another 200 li to the west is Mount Changliu, where Shao Hao was respected as Bai Di.” The literal meaning of the Chinese characters “Bai Di” was “White King” or “White Ancestor-god.” The word “white” suggests that Shao Hao had a clear Caucasoid racial characteristic - white skin. Mount Changliu was located in the northwest of Mount Buzhou in the Pamirs Plateau. The Chang Liu People regarding Shao Hao as their “White King” or “White Ancestor-god” indicates that Shao Hao’s group used to live in Mount Changliu and the Chang Liu People were offspring of the Shao Hao People.

There were women who just bathed the Yue (moon). The Chang Xi women, who were wives of the Di Jun men, gave birth to twelve groups of the Yue (moon) People, who lived in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau.

 

 

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North records:

“The Wei People with the surname of Wei ate millet and lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert. They were offspring of Wei, who was Shao Hao’s son and had only one eye in the center of his face.”

The literal meaning of the Chinese character “Wei” is mystical and awesome boldness of vision and strength.

 

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East records:

“The Nü He People were called Mother of Yue. Someone was named Yuan, living in the East End of the Earth and controlling the sun and the moon to make them rise in order.” The literal meaning of the Chinese character “Yue” is moon. The literal meaning of the Chinese character “Yuan” was a kind of phoenix. The Nü He People were mothers of the Yue (moon) People and lived in the Eastern Shandong Peninsula near the East End of the Earth.

“There was a big water beyond the Eastern Sea (today’s Sea of Japan). There were the Shao Hao People, who used to nurture the more immature Zhuan Xu People and the Zhuan Xu discarded their musical instruments - Qin and Se. The Ganshui River came from the Gan Mountain and went to the Ganyuan Lake.” The Shao Hao People nurturing the more immature Zhuan Xu People indicates that the Shao Hao had taught the Zhuan Xu with the most advanced technologies in their early time. The Zhuan Xu learned eagerly, had no time for music and discarded the musical instruments - Qin and Se. Tai Zi Chang Qin, son of Zhu Rong, first made music and musical instruments; Zhuan Xu begat Lao Tong, who begat Zhu Rong, recorded in the Classic of the Great Wilderness: West. We could put it another way: that the early Shao Hao Culture had nurtured the early Zhuan Xu Culture. These records reveal that the Shao Hao and Zhuan Xu People built close connection when they lived as neighbors in the west of the Qinghai Lake, while later the Shao Hao moved to the lower reach of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula.

“The Shao Hao People lived in the Gan Mountains, where the Ganshui River came from.” Modern scholars commonly agree that the Gan Mountain was located in today’s Taishan and Yimeng Shan Mountains. The Ganshui River came from these mountains and went to the Ganyuan Lake, highly possible today’s four lakes of Nanyang, Dushan, Zhaoyang and Weishan.

 

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South records:

“The Bei People, who fought with the Di Jun People and lost the fight, moved to the Mei Yuan Lake. The Bei People were descendants of the Shao Hao People.”

“There was the Ganshui River beyond the Southeastern Sea (today’s Yellow Sea of China); there were the Xi He People, living in the upper reach of the Ganshui River. The Xi He women married with the Di Jun men and gave birth to ten groups of people, named Ri. The Xi He just bathed Ri in the Ganyuan Lake.” This suggests that some Xi He women moved to the lower reach of the Ganshui River, found the Di Jun men as their husbands and gave birth to ten groups of the Ri People, who lived near the Ganyuan Lake - today’s Four Lakes. The literal meaning of the Chinese character “Ri” is sun.

 

The Zhou Dynasty’s new stories of the Shao Hao People in The Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas.

Shao Gao (another name of Shao Hao) was the ancestor of Ban, who made the first bow and arrow.

 

Shanhaijing’s records of Neolithic Chinese People

Five Biggest Groups of Neolithic Chinese People had Lived in the Pamirs Plateau before They Moved to other Places of China.

The Classic of the Mountains: West records that Huang Di (Yellow King) lived in Mount Mi. The word “Huang (yellow)” suggests that Huang Di had a clear Mongoloid racial characteristic - yellow skin. It also records that Shao Hao was respected as Bai Di, “White King” or “White Ancestor-god,” by people in Mount Changliu. The word “Bai (white)” suggests that Shao Hao had a clear Caucasoid racial characteristic - white skin. The fact that the Chang Liu People regarded Shao Hao as their “White King” or “White Ancestor-god” indicates that the Chang Liu People were offspring of the Shao Hao. Mount Mi and Changliu were located in today’s Pamirs Plateau. Today, we shall comprehend that Huang Di refers to Huang Di’s group due to the living in the matriarchal clan society, so did Yan Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East tells that Shu Shi, Zhuan Xu’s son, lived near Mount Buzhou, also The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West says, “The Yu People (Di Jun’s offspring) fought with the Gong Gong People (Zhuan Xu’s offspring) in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou,” suggesting Zhuan Xu’s group lived near Mount Buzhou in the Pamirs.

Shanhaijing does not give information about Di Jun living in the Pamirs Plateau, but records many groups of the Di Jun’s offspring living in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau, including King Shun’s group and the Yu People, who lived near Mount Buzhou. Clearly, Di Jun’s group used to live near Mount Buzhou, their offspring moved to the northern Tibetan Plateau and had a lot of wars with Zhuan Xu’s offspring.

Shanhaijing does not contain any detail of Yan Di living in the Pamirs Plateau, but clearly records that Ling Jia, Yan Di’s great-grandson, and Hu Ren, Yan Di’s great-great-grandson, lived in the west of the Taklamakan Desert. Drawing inferences about other cases from Huang Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun, we can say that Yan Di’s group used to live near the Pamirs Plateau, later their offspring moved to the west of the Taklamakan Desert.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West tells us, “In the west of the Qinghai Lake and a corner of the Tibetan Plateau, there was Mount Buzhou. There were ten spirits (gods). It said that Nüwa’s intestines scattered into ten spirits; they lived in millet fields and slept on roads.” “Ten spirits” came from Nüwa and under her jurisdiction, lived near Mount Buzhou. This reveals that all ancient Chinese people, including the five biggest groups, regarded Nüwa as the Goddess since their early time.

Due to all ancient groups of Chinese people used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, they might have moved to the south areas of the Himalayan Mountains to the Indo-Gangetic Plain and contributed as some origins of the Ancient Indus Valley civilizations (about 3000-1700BCE). In this article, I will not discuss this. I will only talk about those ancient groups of people who moved to China and built ancient Chinese civilizations.

 

The Second Gathering Areas of Neolithic Chinese People were the West of the Qinghai Lake, East of the Taklamakan Desert and North of the Tibetan Plateau.

Shanhaijing records that many groups of people lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake and north of the Tibetan Plateau, including offspring of the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Shao Hao, Yan Di and other peoples, such as the Xi (west) Zhou, Bei (north) Qi and Xuan Yuan People.

 

In the west of the Taklamakan Desert, there lived:

  • People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Western Queen Mother lived in Mount Yu.

The Hu Ren (also called Di Ren) People were the ancestors of the Di Qiang People. Yan Di’s grandson was the father of Ling Jia; Ling Jia was the father of Hu Ren.

Yu Fu was the son of Zhuan Xu. Later the Yu Fu People turned their totem from snake to fish and recovered from death.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Mountains: West -

The Western Queen Mother lived in Mount Yu; the Xuan Yuan People lived in the Xuan Yuan Mound; Huang Di lived in Mount Mi and Shao Hao lived in Mount Changliu. They were all in today’s Pamirs Plateau.

 

In the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, near Mount Buzhou, there lived:

 Shu Shi, son of Zhuan Xu, recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West. Also “The Yu People (Di Jun’s offspring) fought with the Gong Gong People (Zhuan Xu’s offspring) in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou.”

 

In the west of the Chishui River and east of the Taklamakan Desert, there lived:

  • People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Bei (north) Di People were offspring of Shi Jun, who was grandson of Huang Di.

Tai Zi Chang Qin, who lived in Mount Yao and started making music, was the son of Zhu Rong. Zhuan Xu was the father of Lao Tong; Lao Tong was the father of Zhu Rong. Later, the Zhu Rong People moved to the east of the Chishui River and lived in the far south of the Di Mountain, recorded in The Classic of Regions Beyond the Sea: South.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North -

The Zhong Bian People were descendants of Zhong Bian, son of Zhuan Xu.

 

In the northern Tibetan Plateau, there lived:

  • People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Xuan Yuan People moved from the Xuan Yuan Mound in the Pamirs Plateau to the northern Tibetan Plateau and their life-span was more than 800 years. (In ancient China, people often used eight, eighty or eight hundreds to mean a lot.)

The San Mian People were descendants of San Mian, son of Zhuan Xu.

The Ye People, who lived in the westernmost place of the Tibetan Plateau, were offspring of Li. Zhuan Xu was the father of Lao Tong; Lao Tong was the father of Chong and Li.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North -

Shao Hao was the father of Wei, who had only one eye in the center of his face. The Wei People, with the surname of Wei, ate millet.

The Bei (north) Qi People (Jiang Zi-ya’s ancestors).

The Shu Chu People were descendants of Shu Chu, son of Zhuan Xu.

The Quan Rong People ate meat. Huang Di was the father of Miao Long; Miao Long was the father of Rong Wu; Rong Wu was the father of Nong Ming; Nong Ming was the father of Bai Quan, also called Quan Rong.

The Kua Fu People. Hou Tu was the father of Sin; Sin was the father of Kua Fu.

The Ba People (descended from Ba, Huang Di’s daughter).

3)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South

King Shun’s group (Di Jun’s offspring) bathed in the Chong Yuan Lake.

 

In the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Chishui River, there lived the Xi (west) Zhou People (the Zhou Dynasty’s ancestors) with the surname of Ji, who ate millet, recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West.

Shu Jun started practicing cultivating grains. Di Jun was the father of Hou Ji and Tai Xi; Tai Xi was the father of Shu Jun.

Yu Hao was the father of Yan Er. Yan Er was the father of Wu Gu. Wu Gu was the father of Ji Wu Min. Both the Yan Er People, who ate millet, and the Ji Wu Min People, who ate fish, had the surname of Ren.

The Guan Tou People and Miao Min People had the surname of Li. Zhuan Xu was the ancestor of Guan Tou; The Guan Tou were the ancestors of Miao Min.

Later the Guan Tou People moved to the south of today’s Tibetan Plateau and fish in the sea (highly possible today’s sea near Dhaka of Bangladesh), recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South. Gun’s wife Shi Jing gave birth to Yan Rong; Yan Rong was the father of Guan Tou.

 

Shanhaijing does not give time sequence when recording locations of ancient groups of people, but gives us clues to find out the time sequence. These clues lead to a conclusion that Huang Di’s, Yan Di’s, Zhuan Xu’s, Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s groups spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert, excepting Yan Di’s offspring, who spread out to the west and north of the Taklamakan Desert; Yu Fu’s group (offspring of Zhuan Xu) also moved to that area.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North tells that Wei, son of Shao Hao, lived in the north of the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting the Shao Hao People spread out from Mount Changliu in the Pamirs Plateau to the north of the Tibetan Plateau.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North says that Zhuan Xu and his nine wives were buried on Mount Fuyu, which was located between the Yellow River beyond the Qinghai Lake, suggesting that the Zhuan Xu People spread out from the eastern Pamirs to Mount Fuyu in today’s Aemye Ma-chhen Range.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South says King Shun lived in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau; also Di Jun (Di Ku), King Yao, King Shun and Shu Jun (grandson of Di Jun) were buried in the same place on the Yueshan Mountain. The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West says the Yu People fought with the Gong Gong People in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou; also Shu Jun’s group lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Chishui River. These records hint us that the Di Jun People spread out from the Pamirs to the northern Tibetan Plateau and begat many groups, such as the Yao, Shun and Yu People, also the Hou Ji, Tai Xi and Shu Jun People, who lived in the east of the Chishui River and west of the Qinghai Lake.

Huang Di’s group lived in Mount Mi in the Pamirs Plateau, while their offspring, the Miao Long, Rong Wu, Nong Ming, Bai Quan, or Quan (Xi) Rong, lived in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and the Shi Jun and Bei (north) Di lived in the west of the Chishui River.

The Xuan Yuan People spread out from the Xuan Yuan Mound in the Pamirs Plateau to the northern Tibetan Plateau.

 

Wars recorded in Shanhaijing.

Shanhaijing records many wars between different groups of people and these wars led to some agreements of their shifting routes.

One of these famous wars happened between the Chi You People (offspring of Zhuan Xu) and the Ying Long People (offspring of Huang Di).

Shanhaijing records Zhuan Xu had at least nine wives and many sons, more than Yan Di, Huang Di, Di Jun and Shao Hao. The followings are Zhuan Xu’s sons: Yu Fu, Shu Shi, Shu Chu, San Mian, Zhong Bian, Lao Tong, who was the father of Zhu Rong (who was Tai Zi Chang Qin’s father), Chong and Li (who was Ye’s father). The Zhuan Xu’s offspring also include Hou Tu, Sin’s father and Kua Fu’s grandfather, also Gun, who and his wife Shi Jing were the parents of Yan Rong, Guan Tou’s father and Miao Min’s grandfather. There were many groups of people who were offspring of Zhuan Xu’s group and they could outnumber others when they lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake.

The Chi You People had a sense of “safety in numbers” and launched an offensive to the Huang Di People, who had fewer groups. The Ying Long People took up the challenge and killed the Chi You People with the help of the Ba People (offspring of Huang Di’s daughter Ba). Later, the Kua Fu People (offspring of Zhuan Xu) moved to the east and became far away from other Zhuan Xu’s offspring, the Ying Long seized the chance and killed the Kua Fu People. After killing the Chi You and Kua Fu, the Ying Long were afraid of retribution from Zhuan Xu’s offspring, they escaped to the south and later moved to Mound Xiong Li Tu Qiu in the north of the eastern mountains.

Another famous war happened between the Ba People and Shu Jun People (offspring of Di Jun). After the Ying Long went to the south, the Ba People, who had come to help the Ying Long, lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake. They had conflicts with the Shu Jun People. After negotiation, the Ba People believed their Ancestor-god Huang Di asked them to move to the north of the Chishui River. These stories hint us that ancient groups of Chinese people made an agreement after these wars, that the Huang Di’s offspring would live in the north of the Chishui River and move to the northern areas, matching Shanhaijing’s records of their later inhabitation areas.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South records, “The Yu People launched an offensive against the Yun Yu People in the Yun Yu Mountain in the northern Tibetan Plateau.” The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North says, “The Yu People killed Xiang Yao, Gong Gong’s minister, in the north of the Kunlun Mountains.” Also The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West tells, “The Yu People fought with the Gong Gong People in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou.” Clearly, the Di Jun’s and Zhuan Xu’s offspring fought a lot when they lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake. After these wars, they might have reached an agreement - Zhuan Xu’s offspring would go to the south, while Di Jun’s offspring would go to east. Such migration routes matched Shanhaijing’s records of their later inhabitation areas.

“Shao Hao nurturing the immature Zhuan Xu and the Zhuan Xu discarding their musical instruments - Qin and Se,” recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East, hint us that the Shao Hao People mastered the most advanced sciences and technologies and the Zhuan Xu People built close relationship with them in their early time, learned eagerly from them and discarded musical instruments, which were first invented by Tai Zi Chang Qin. Due to the Shao Hao mastering most advanced technologies, all other peoples would like to build close relationships with them, therefore, Shanhaijing has no records of Shao Hao’s offspring fighting with other peoples in their early time.

 

Neolithic Chinese People spread out from the Pamirs to the West of the Qinghai Lake and East of the Taklamakan Desert, then to other places.

The Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao People, and some other peoples, such as the Xuan Yuan, Xi (west) Zhou and Bei (north) Qi People, spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert, lived nomadic lifestyle side by side, hunting animal, collecting millet and learning from each other. Within five to six generations, they had mastered many new sciences and technologies, Tai Zi Chang Qin (Zhuan Xu’s great-grandson) was the progenitor of making music instruments and Shu Jun (Di Jun’s grandson) was the progenitor of practicing cultivating grains.

After some wars, ancient Chinese people made some agreements. The Huang Di People moved to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas. Most of the Zhuan Xu People lived near the Tibetan Plateau and later some of them moved to the south, such as the Zhu Rong People, reached the Sichuan Basin, such as the Yu Fu People, and the Bay of Bengal, such as the Guan Tou People. The Shao Hao and Di Jun People moved to the east to the Weihe River Valley.

Of course, there were also possibly very few groups from the Di Jun, Zhuan Xu and Shao Hao going to the north, or going to the south; due to the fact that they were not the majority, we would not discuss them.

 

The Third Gathering Area of Neolithic Chinese People was the Weihe River Valley.

The Shao Hao and Di Jun People spread out to the Weihe River Valley.

The Zhuan Xu People, who lived in the Aemye Ma-chhen Range, were very near the Weihe River Valley and had the ability to move to the Weihe Plain. However, due to the fact that the Zhuan Xu People had many wars with the Di Jun, it is highly possible that the Di Jun People did not allow the Zhuan Xu People to enter the Weihe Plain. This matches Shanhaijing having no records of the Zhuan Xu People living in the central and eastern areas.

 

Archaeological Findings Match Shanhaijing’s Records of Ancient Groups of Chinese People.

Current humans share a common group of ancestors who were late Modern Humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) and who became the only surviving human species on Earth about 20,000 years ago. This latest human species, Homo sapiens sapiens, our ancestors, soon entered the Neolithic, a period in the development of human technology. The Neolithic period began in some parts of the Middle East about 18,000 years BP according to the ASPRO chronology and later in other parts of the world and ended between 4500BCE and 2000BCE.

About 20,000-19,000 years BP, in the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) period, vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe and Asia; many high mountains were covered by snow and ice. The world’s sea level was about 130 meters lower than today, due to the large amount of sea water that had evaporated and been deposited as snow and ice, mostly in the Laurentide ice sheet. At the later stage of the Pleistocene since about 18,000 years BP, temperature rose quickly and snow and ice started melting, including the Pamirs Plateau and Tibetan Plateau. [2]

Shanhaijing records Huang Di’s, Yan Di’s, Di Jun’s, Zhuan Xu’s and Shao Hao’s group lived in the Pamirs Plateau and their offspring moved to the east and spread out to all over China. Many recent Chinese Neolithic archaeological discoveries have included cultivated rice from as early as 14,000 years BP. These include sites in Dao County of Hunan Province (about 12,000BCE), Wannian County of Jiangxi Province (about 10,000 years BP) and Yingde of Guangdong Province (about 9000-6000BCE). Archaeologists have found a lot of remains of human activity 10,000 years ago in China, including Bianbian cave of Yiyuan in Shandong (about 9,000-12,000 years BP), Nazhuantou of Xushui in Henan, Yuchanyan of Dao County in Hunan, Diaotonghuan in Jiangxi, Baozitou of Nanning in Guangxi, Ji County of Tianjin and Qinglong County of Guizhou. In 2013, Hou Guang-liang, the professor of the School of Life and Geography Science of Qinghai Normal University, and other archaeologists of the Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute of Qinghai discovered remains of human activity about 11,200-10,000 years BP in Xiadawu of Maqin County, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province.

Shanhaijing’s records and archaeological findings bring us a scientific conclusion. The Pamirs Plateau was very cold and unfit for human habitation before 16,000 years BP. As temperature rising, people, who came from the Middle East, began to enter the Pamirs Plateau around 16,000-15,000 years BP, soon they found that in the east of the Pamirs, there were vast fertile lands, they moved quickly from the Pamirs to the east and spread out to many places of China during about 16,000-14,000 years BP. The early ancient Chinese people lived nomadic lifestyle, moved frequently and were not able to leave much archaeological remains to us. However, when the Neolithic Chinese people started cultivating grains, they were able to settle down and left many archaeological remains.

Archaeologists agree that ancient Chinese people were in the matriarchal clan society before about 8,000 years BP, when human knew only mother, not father and accepted only endogamy. It made it possible to ascertain the patriarchal clan of a group of people instead of an individual.

In prehistoric China, people usually named their groups after certain ancestors. Shanhaijing records many ancient groups of people and names a group of people with “Guo,” its literal meaning is nation or tribe. Shanhaijing does not identify the patriarchal ancestors of most ancient groups of people due to the long-time of the matriarchal clan society. However, Shanhaijing clearly identifies some individual’s patriarchal clans and around 150 groups of Neolithic people, which came from the five biggest groups of people: Huang Di, Yan Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups of people, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors.

When the patriarchal clan society began in about 8,000 years BP, almost all ancient Chinese people still accepted only endogamy, those people, who believed that they were offspring of Huang Di’s group, tried to compile their patriarchal clans and claimed Huang Di was their common male ancestor. However, they were not able to ascertain which particular individual was Huang Di, due to Huang Di living in the matriarchal clan society - his group had female as a leader and he was not able to be the male leader of his group. Clearly, Huang Di was only a figure from compilation, not a real person. Or, Huang Di originally was a female leader but people in the patriarchal clan society claimed that he was a male leader. Today, we shall comprehend that Huang Di refers to Huang Di’s group. The Huang Di People refer to all people who were offspring of Huang Di’s group and regarded Huang Di as their common male ancestor. So did Yan Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun.

While most geographical positions written in Shanhaijing cannot be verified, Shanhaijing still provides some hints to let us know the homelands of ancient groups of people.

The Movement of the Shao Hao People During the Neolithic Age.

The Shao Hao People spread out from Mount Changliu in the western Pamirs Plateau to the east of the Taklamakan Desert and west of the Qinghai Lake. The remaining Shao Hao People in Mount Changliu were called “Chang Liu People.”

Shanhaijing records many wars between different groups of people but no wars between the Shao Hao and other peoples in their early time; instead, the early Zhuan Xu People learning eagerly from the Shao Hao and having no time for their musical instruments, reveals the Shao Hao had mastered most advanced sciences and technologies, all other groups of Neolithic Chinese people would like to build close relationships with them. Thereby the Shao Hao had greatly influenced other groups of Neolithic Chinese people with their advanced technologies since their early time.

The Shao Hao People spread out to the Weihe River Valley with some groups of the Di Jun People following them, later to the lower reach of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula, living a nomadic lifestyle, collecting millet and hunting animal during about 16,000-14,000 years BP. The Di Jun People, who followed the Shao Hao’s migration route to the east, lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s inhabitation areas. The migration route of Shao Hao’s groups was exactly the later Old Silk Road, which was built during the Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE).

Around 11,000 years BP, Neolithic Chinese people went from gathering to cultivating millet. The Shao Hao and Di Jun People became origins of direct founders of the Weihe River Valley Culture, including Laoguantai Culture (6000-5000BCE), Qin’an Dadiwan First Culture (6200-3000BCE) in Qinan County of Gansu and it successor, Yangshao Culture (5000-3000BCE), also called Painted-Pottery Culture, centered in Huashan and existed in the middle reach of the Yellow River, and the Cishan-peiligang Culture (6200-4600BCE), another origin of Yangshao Culture, in modern-day Henan and southern Hebei. These cultures were named “Di Qiang Culture” by modern historians. The Shao Hao People, who mastered the most advanced sciences and technologies during the Neolithic Age, were the leading developers of Di Qiang Culture.

The Shao Hao People, who moved to the Shandong Peninsula, branched out to many groups, living a nomadic lifestyle during about 16,000-14,000 years BP. About 11,000 years BP, they went from gathering to cultivating millet and soon developed the most advanced Neolithic cultures in the Shandong Peninsula, including Houli Culture (about 6400-5700BCE), a millet-growing culture in Linzi, and its successor - Beixin Culture (about 5300-4100BCE), a millet-growing culture in Tengzhou. The potteries discovered in Houli Culture are main painted-potteries, but also have some black potteries, which used more advanced technologies. Dawenkou Culture (about 4100-2600BCE) existed primarily in the Shandong Peninsula, but also appeared in eastern Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu and affected deeply the cultures in the lower reach of the Changjiang River. It overlapped with the territory of Shao Hao People.

Houli, Beixin and Dawenkou cultures and their successor Longshan Culture were named “Dong Yi Culture” by modern archaeologists and historians, who also agree that Dong Yi Culture was the most advanced culture in Neolithic China. The Shao Hao People were sole founders of Dong Yi Culture. The technologies of making black potteries were developed only in the Shandong Peninsula and later spread out to other places of China. Longshan Dong Yi Culture (3200-1900BCE) spread out to the territories of the Cishan-peiligang and Yangshao Di Qiang cultures and turned these areas into outposts of Dong Yi Culture. Through this diffusion, Dong Yi Culture greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization.

The Shao Hao People also spread out from the Shandong Peninsula to other places of China along the coastlines, including the Changjiang River estuary, Taiwan and southeast Asia, even Philippines and Polynesia during about 16,000-14,000 years BP.

The Shao Hao People lived near the sea in the east of the Di Jun’s territories in the lower reach of the Changjiang River. The Shao Hao and Di Jun were origins of direct founders of the rice-growing cultures, including Hemudu (5000-3300BCE) in Yuyao of Zhejiang, Majiabang (5000-4000BCE) in Jiaxing of Zhejiang and its successors, Songze (3800-2900BCE) in Qingpu District of Shanghai, and Liangzhu (5300-4200BCE) near Taihu of Zhejiang. The Jade Statues in Lingjiatan Culture (3500-3300BCE) in Hanshan County of Anhui Province have big eyes with double eyelids, the obvious non- Mongoloid characteristics, suggesting the Shao Hao were direct founders of this culture. Many painted-potteries and a large numbers of black potteries discovered in the lower reach of the Changjiang River, prove the deep influence by Dawenkou Dong Yi Culture (4100-2600BCE).

 

 

The Shao Hao People spread out along the coastline to the southeastern China, including Taiwan, where Dabenkeng (4000-3000BCE) Culture was developed, later spread out to the Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Polynesia and Australia. The Di Jun People had the ability to follow the Shao Hao’s migration routes, while the Zhuan Xu People also had the ability to reach the Southeast Asia and follow the Shao Hao’s migration routes.

Archaeologists confirm that rope figure potteries found in Dabenkeng were similar with Hemudu, Majiabang and Liangzhu cultures. German archaeologist Robert Heine Geldern thought that Dabenkeng Culture also spread from Taiwan to Philippines and Polynesia. Dawenkou Culture (4100-2600BCE), which greatly influenced cultures in the lower reach of the Changjiang River, also deeply influenced Dabenkeng and cultures in the southeastern Asia, Philippines and Polynesia.

The Shao Hao People, who spread out from the Shandong Peninsula to the north, Arctic Cycle and Americas along the coastline or through the sea by boat during about 16,000-5,000 years BP, did not leave many archaeological remains for us, due to their migration routes being drowned by sea water while the sea level rising.[10]

Archaeological discoveries match the Shao Hao’s inhabitation areas recorded in Shanhaijing, which also reveal that the sea level rising forced the Shao Hao to move to mountain areas. The biggest group of the Shao Hao’s offspring, called “Shao Hao People,” lived in the northern Taishan Mountains. The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South records the Bei People (Shao Hao’s offspring) fought with the Di Jun People for territory, lost the fight and moved to the Mei Yuan Lake. This story tells us that the Shao Hao People, who had moved to the south of the Changjiang River, moved to the west when the sea level rising, entered the territories of the Di Jun People and caused conflicts.

The Race of the Shao Hao and Nü He People

Dr. Carleton S. Coon classified humanity into five races (major divisions of mankind) - Caucasoid race: Europiforms, Mongoloid race: Mongoliforms, Negroid race: Negriforms, Capoid race: Khoisaniforms and Australoid race: Australiforms. [5]

The Caucasoid race is defined by the Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English as “relating to a broad division of humankind covering peoples from Europe, western Asia and parts of India and North Africa,” or “white-skinned; of European origin,” or “relating to the region of the Caucasus in SE Europe.” This concept’s existence is based upon “the now disputed typological method of racial classification origin.”

The common accepted characteristics of Mongoloid are yellow-skinned, black and straight hair, single-fold eyelids, flat nose, shovel-shaped incisor and little body hair. Huang Di, the literal meaning of these Chinese characters was “Yellow King,” or “Yellow Ancestor-god.” The word “yellow” suggests that Huang Di had a clear Mongoloid racial characteristic - yellow skin.

Shanhaijing clearly tells us that the Shao Hao People spread out from Mount Changliu of the Pamirs Plateau to the west of the Qinghai Lake and then to the lower reach of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula. The Chang Liu People in Mount Changliu respected Shao Hao, ancestor of the Shao Hao People, as the “White King” or “White Ancestor-God.” The word “white” suggests that Shao Hao had a clear Caucasoid racial characteristic - white skin.

Shanhaijing also records that the Di Jun People were fathers of the Bai Min (the literal meaning of these Chinese characters were “white people”, suggesting the Bai Min’s mothers were from the Shao Hao People, so that the Bai Min People had Caucasoid racial characteristic - white skin. The exogamy between the Xi He women (the Shao Hao’s offspring) and Di Jun men, gave birth to ten groups of the Ri (sun) People, who lived near the four lakes of Nanyang, Dushan, Zhaoyang and Weishan, while the Chang Xi women (the Shao Hao’s offspring) married with the Di Jun men and gave birth to twelve groups of the Yue (moon) People, who lived in the western Kunlun Mountains.

Many modern historians used to classify the Shao Hao People as members of the Mongoloid race. However, archaeological discovers prove that the Shao Hao People bore resemblances to the Caucasoid race in general appearance. They were very tall people, with a high forehead, aquiline nose, pronounced facial whiskers, beard and bushy body hairs. The Shao Hao People shared genes with Caucasians.

In fact, archaeologists and scientists of molecular paleontology had discovered Caucasoid racial characteristics (HV genes) in DNA extracted from bones in ancient tombs at Linzi, as well as archaeological sites of Dawenkou (about 4000BCE) and Beizhuang (about 4500BCE) in Changdao, in the Shandong Peninsula. This offered clear evidence that the Shao Hao People and Caucasoid race shared genetic connection.

Li H, Huang Y, Mustavich LF and Zhang F, authors of “Y-chromosomes of Prehistoric People Along the Yangtze River, Human Genetic” (November 2007, 122(3-4):383-8), believe that the Neolithic residents of the Shandong Peninsula and some regions of eastern China (including parts of Henan, Hebei and Jiangsu) had clear Caucasoid characteristics. Those people might have come from the Middle East. [6]

At Beizhuang (about 4500BCE) in Changdao, archaeologists discovered a pottery mask with clear Caucasoid characteristics. [7]

Guo Mo-ruo (1892-1978), former President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, discovered that the Neolithic residents of the Shandong Peninsula, during the period of Dawenkou Culture (about 4100-2600BCE), had luxuriant facial whiskers and beards, bushy body hairs, aquiline nose, thereby bearing some resemblance to the Caucasoid race in appearance.

Many Shandong Neolithic archaeological sites contain the bodies of tall Neolithic people. Guchengding (about 1000BCE) in Qingdao, revealed individuals about 1.8 and 1.9 meters tall; Beiqian Village (about 4000BCE) in Jimo in the Shandong Peninsula, had individuals as tall as two meters; Liangwangcheng  (about 3000BCE) in Pizhou of Jiangsu Province, bordering Shandong Province, held bodies more than 1.8 meters tall. In Jiaojia Site (about 5,000 years BP) of Zhuangqiu in Jinan, some bodies were above 1.8 meters tall.

The Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Laboratory for Molecular Anthropology and Molecular Evolution and Division of Anthropology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tokyo, made a co-study. They found that inconsistent with the geographical distribution, the 2,500-year-old Linzi population (in Shandong Province) showed greater genetic similarity to present-day European populations than to present-day East Asian populations. The 2,000-year-old Linzi population had features that were intermediate between the present-day European and the present-day East Asian populations, as compared to over-2,500 year old Linzi populations. [8]

Scientific research indicates incontestably that local residents in the Shandong Peninsula had Caucasoid race characteristics from the Neolithic Age until the late Spring and Autumn Period (771-476BCE). The State of Qi cracked the city of the Ji Nation (in today’s Shouguang), wiped out the main forces of Ji in 690BCE, and forced the Ji People to move to the east of the Jiaolai River. The State of Qi destroyed the Shao Hao Lai nation completely in 567BCE, killing the Lai king and most of the Lai People, taking control of whole territory. The Qi People, who were members of the Mongoloid race, were the reason of the proliferation of Mongoloid race in the western Shandong Peninsula.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589CE), most of the rulers of the northern dynasties came from the northern nomadic people, who were the Huang Di’s offspring and were members of the Mongoloid race. After the Sui Dynasty (581-618CE) and Tang Dynasty (618-907CE), the Han People, or Han Nationality (the name of the ethnic majority in China since the Han Dynasty 202BCE-220CE) of the Shandong Peninsula, had on average far more Mongolian racial characteristics. Emperors encouraged large-scale migration throughout Chinese history, and as a result, there were a lot of exogamy between groups of people.

According to historical records, many Shandong historical figures had Caucasoid racial characteristics.

Confucius (551-479BCE), an offspring of the Shang Emperors, had clear Caucasoid racial characteristics.

Very tall (over 2.2 meters). The Records of the Grand Historian said, “Confucius was nine Chi and six Cun; everyone thought he was different and called him the tall man.” One Chi is about 23.2 centimeters; one Chi is ten Cun. However, some lacquer screen, which was found in the tomb of “Haihunhou” (Marquis of Haihun) dating back to the Western Han Dynasty (202BCE-9CE), says that Confucius was seven Chi and nine Cun (about 182 centimeters).

Enhanced strength. Liezi said, “Confucius had enhanced physical strength and could lift the sluice of a city.”

High forehead. Kongzi Jiayu said, “his eyes were like rivers; his forehead was high; his head looked like Yao; his neck looked like Gao Tao; his shoulders looked like Zi Chan; his lower body was three Cun shorter than Yu.” Zhuangzi said: “his upper body was longer than his lower body; he was humpbacked; his ears could be seen from the back.”

Liu Bang (256-195BCE) had a high nose, high forehead, high brow-bone, significant facial whiskers and a beard, bearing clear resemblances to the Caucasoid race in general appearance.

Clearly, the Shao Hao People, including the Nü He, Xi He and Chang Xi peoples, had clear Caucasoid racial characteristics. However, due to there were no direct evidence that the Shao Hao People and European share the same origin. I refer to the Shao Hao People as the Shao Hao Race in this article, to distinguish them from other, purely Mongoloid races of Neolithic people in China.

 

The Ancestral Worship Totems of the Shao Hao and Nü He People Were Bird-shaped and the Phoenix.

Shanhaijing records many birds and bird totems in the areas where the Shao Hao People lived. Shanhaijing: Classic of the Mountains: East, on the geography of eastern China, records that the ancient Shandong Peninsula was biologically a “bird heaven.” There were many birds: Qi Que, Chou Yu, San Qing bird, Jiu Jiu, the Luan bird, Huang bird, Qing bird, Lang bird, Xuan bird, Yellow bird, Li Zhu and Yi bird, etc. Some of these birds were said to predict weather or good and bad luck. There were birds called Li Hu on the Lu Qi Mountain which were said to look like Mandarin ducks with human feet; when they appeared, water and soil loss would occur. There were also birds called Jie Gou on the Yin Mountain, which looked like mallards with rat tails; when they appeared, pestilence followed. There were even birds which looked like chickens with rat hair; when they appeared, severe drought would occur. Because of these legends of birds in the Shandong Peninsula, the Shao Hao People were associated with the ability to predict weather or good and bad luck through birds.

Shanhaijing records the Nü He People were called Mother of Yue; Yuan (fire Phoenix) lived in the East End of the Earth and controlled the sun and the moon to make them rise in order. Clearly, the Nü He People worshipped the fire Phoenix, which was regarded as the King/Queen of all birds.

At many prehistoric sites in the Shandong Peninsula, archeologists have discovered bird-shaped pieces of art. A Neolithic site (about 4500BCE) in Beizhuang on Changdao Island of Shandong Province contains grey pottery GUI (small open container) figures shaped like birds. To archaeologists, this suggests that the Shao Hao People worshiped bird totems.

The Classic of Poetry, or Shijing, records the Shang’s ancestors, who were offspring of the Shao Hao People, “God orders the Xuan Bird (black bird) to give birth to the Shang,” suggesting the Shang worshipped bird totems.

To Be Continued to Part II: The Nü He People were the Funders of the Earliest Neolithic Chinese Astronomy, Calendar, Maritime Culture and “He” Culture.

http://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/part2nvhe

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"Ene16. 6.55 p.m. "Va zorra vieja" gritó un hombre cuando venía entrando por la avenida de los caneyes."
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Sugey Ortiz-Serrano posted a status
""Ahora sí putamente manteca" dijo controlador, en Colombia, manteca es una mujer sin formación y servil, En16. 5.10 p.m."
9 hours ago

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