Soleilmavis's Posts (192)

Sort by

Model questionnaire to be completed by persons alleging torture or their representatives

Information on the torture of a person should be transmitted to the Special Rapporteur in written form and sent to:

Special Rapporteur on Torture
c/o Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
United Nations Office at Geneva
CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland

E-mail: urgent-action@ohchr.org

Although it is important to provide as much detail as possible, the lack of a comprehensive accounting should not necessarily preclude the submission of reports. However, the Special Rapporteur can only deal with clearly identified individual cases containing the following minimum elements of information:

  1. Full name of the victim; 

SOLEILMAVIS LIU

  1. Date on which the incident(s) of torture occurred (at least as to the month and year);

From December 2001 to present

  1. Place where the person was seized (city, province, etc.) And location at which the torture was carried out (if known);

Australia during December 2001 – April 2002

Hong Kong and Thailand during April 2002

The USA Embassy in Hong Kong on April 5, 2002

China during April 2002- August 2002,

New Zealand during August 2002 - April 2003,

China during April 2003- present.

  1. Indication of the forces carrying out the torture;

The governments covered/cover the abuses and tortures of the Weapons using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations or the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations.

  1. Description of the form of torture used and any injury suffered as a result;

They used electromagnetic weapons to torture me. The main symptoms were:

These people can use their electromagnetic weapons to transmit their voices directly to my brain. They can make "voices" sound as if coming from neighbors or from a nearby person. They also can use their weapons to make "voices" sound like the voices of your friends or your family members.

Pain all over the body; stomach pain, toothache, headaches, leg pain, arm pain.

high fevers; suddenly felt very cold and shivered involuntarily, or suddenly felt very hot and sweating, etc.

Diarrhea,

hands trembled involuntarily, legs suddenly not being able to stand,

astriction, gatism, and sex harassment.

not allow me to sleep at night, or to wake me up at mid-night. Sometimes, they also forced me to sleep when I did not want to sleep.

They also forced me to "have dreams" at night. I knew those "dreams" were made by them and transmitted to my brain using their weapons. (The principle is the same with a silent sound device which can transmit sound into the skull of person.)

On April 5, 2002, when I was in Hong Kong, my brain was controlled by voice-to-skull and remote electromagnetic technologies, and I was taken into the USA Embassy in Hong Kong. It was strange that there were so many Security Guards outside the USA Embassy, but nobody stopped me or asked me anything. 

Due to the horrible torture, I could not live normally and was not able to handle any work to support my life.

  1. Identify of the person or organization submitting the report (name and address, which will be kept confidential).

Ms. SOLEILMAVIS LIU

Creater of peacepink, a worldwide Campaign to stop Cybertorture with use of DEWs/ MWs/ Electromagnetic frequencies - an online support group to help other victims, targeted individuals with 5,000+ members)  https://peacepink.ning.com/

Additional sheets should be attached where space does not allow for a full rendering of the information requested. Also, copies of any relevant corroborating documents, such as medical or police records should be supplied where it is believed that such information may contribute to a fuller accounting of the incident. Only copies and not originals of such documents should be sent.

  1. Identity of the person(s) subjected to torture
  2. Family Name LIU
  3. First and other names Soleilmavis
  4. Sex: FEMALE
  5. Birth date or age
  6. Nationality CHINESE
  7. Occupation Author/ Sponsor of Peacepink (support/ help group)

(1) writer of three books.

The first, “Twelve Years in the Grave - Mind Control with Electromagnetic Spectrums, the Invisible Modern Concentration Camp,” provides the evidence of secret abuse and torture with voice-to-skull and remote electromagnetic technologies.

 The second, “The Struggles of an Ordinary Man - The Turbulent History of China Through a Farmer’s Eyes from 1900 to 2000,” is the true record of one hundred years of modern history in rural areas of the Eastern Shandong Peninsula from the 1900 to 2000.

 The third, “The Queen of the South in Matthew 12:42”.

(2) Creater and Sponsor of Peacepink: a worldwide Campaign to stop Cybertorture with use of DEWs/ MWs/ Electromagnetic frequencies - an online support group to help other victims, targeted individuals with 5,000+ members)  https://peacepink.ning.com/

  1. Identity card number (if applicable) China ID:
  2. Activities (trade union, political, religious, humanitarian/ solidarity, press, etc.)

During the past years, I worked hard to try expose the criminal use of electromagnetic technologies and their torturous abusers, and urge governments worldwide to investigate and halt these egregious violations and abuses of basic Human Rights.

Whilst there aren’t laws specific to “cybertorture, these do violate all of the Human Rights laws set in place after the World War II atrocities, amongst others, International Laws A/73/207 covering Abuses, Tortures, Degradation in Quality of Human Life.

I wrote the book “Twelve Years in the Grave - Mind Control with Electromagnetic Spectrums, the Invisible Modern Concentration Camp” to let the public know details of my story. I along with other victims in my network, including PACTS International, have started a concerted campaign against secret electromagnetic weapons abuses and tortures. We are demanding an international investigation into these crimes which constitute immense violations of the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

I, Soleilmavis Liu, created Peacepink, 2009:       https://peacepink.ning.com/

(Peacepink- A worldwide Campaign to stop Cybertorture with use of DEWs/ MWs/ Electromagnetic frequencies- an online support group to help other TI’s, targeted individuals with 5,000+ members)

  1. Residential and/or work address

Email: soleilmavis@yahoo.com

  1. Circumstances surrounding torture
  2. Date and place of arrest and subsequent torture

These tortures commencing December 2001, ever since visiting Australia for studying a Master Degree at RMIT in Melbourne, and continuing into the present, in China, today, 2021.

December 2001 and still continuing today, in 2021.

These abuses on my persona via electromagnetic weaponry commenced and have been ongoing ever since studying a Master Degree as full fee paying student at RMIT, in Melbourne, Australia, 2001.

I haven’t had any chance of leading a normal, fulfilling and happy life, ever since going to Australia where these abuses/ tortures, which have been ongoing, began, in 2001. This includes being unable to work and support myself financially.

  • Australia during December 2001 – April 2002
  • Hong Kong and Thailand during April 2002
  • The USA Embassy in Hong Kong on April 5, 2002
  • China during April 2002- August 2002,
  • New Zealand during August 2002 - April 2003,
  • China during April 2003- continuing into the present, today 2021.

On April 5, 2002, when I was in Hong Kong where my brain was controlled by voice-to-skull and remote electromagnetic technologies, v2k, and I was also taken into the USA Embassy in Hong Kong. It was very strange that there were so many Security Guards outside the USA Embassy, but nobody stopped me or asked me anything. 

I reported these crimes to the police when I was in Australia in January and February 2002, but did not receive any positive reply.

 I wrote letters to the United Nations after I left Australia, but never received any reply.

I wrote letters to the USA governments, China governments and Australia governments, but never received any reply.

  1. Identity of force(s) carrying out the initial detention and/or torture (police, intelligence services, armed forces, paramilitary, prison officials, other)

The governments covered/cover the abuses and tortures of the Weapons using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations or the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations.

  1. Were any person, such as a lawyer, relatives or friends, permitted to see the victim during detention? If so, how long after the arrest?

N/A


  1. Describe the methods of torture used

They, have used/ continue to use, Electromagnetic weapons on me to psychologically abuse and torture, referred as Microwave Weapons (MWs) or Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs) with this commencing ever since going to Australia, in 2001

The psychological tortures inflicted on my persona via Cyberotrture leaves no evidence, and no fingerprints, no physical scars as proof for the authorities.

  1. What injuries were sustained as a result of the torture?

The main physical and psychological symptoms sustained were/ are:

Psychological tortures impacting on my right to live a life as a Human Being. This has cost me the right to study as full fee paying student at RMIT, Melbourne, Australia, 2001, where these tortures began, and have continued up until today, 2021. As a result I haven’t been able to hold down a job or any gainful employment, thus unable to fend for and support myself.

These people can use their electromagnetic weapons to transmit their voices directly to my brain. They can make "voices" sound as if coming from neighbours or from a nearby person. They also can use their weapons to make "voices" sound like the voices of your friends or your family members, (v2k)

Pain all over the body; stomach pain, toothache, headaches, leg pain, arm pain.

High fevers; suddenly felt very cold and I shivered involuntarily, or, I suddenly felt very hot and sweating, etc.

Diarrhoea, sweating, and similar unpleasant symptoms from these psychological stressors

Hands trembled involuntarily, legs suddenly not being able to stand,

Astriction, Gatism, highly invasive Sexual Harassment of the Mind (especially for a lady)

They’ve tortured me and didn’t even allow me to sleep at night, or they’d to wake me up at mid-night. Sometimes, they’d also forced me to sleep when I didn’t want to sleep.

They also forced me to "have strange dreams" at night. I knew those "dreams" were made by them and transmitted to my brain using their weapons. (The principle is the same with a silent sound device which can transmit sound into the skull of person.)

Due to these ongoing horrible tortures, I couldn’t live life with any normality as they took away all of my Human Rights. As a result, I haven’t even been able to hold down any form of paid employment to work, unable to even support myself.

They have taken away every single one of my basic Human Rights, with these tortures commencing ever since going to Australia in 2001 and continuing today, in China, 2021. I am even unable to work and to earn a living to so support myself.

  1. What was believed to be the purpose of the torture?

Statistical (among 300 victims) Evidence- possible reasons victims believed they became a target were:

  • Government Secret Human Experiments or Scientists Performing Secret Human Experiments supported by Government (58.11%);
  • Scientists Performing Secret Human Experiment (36.82%);
  • Government Secret War (33.45%);
  • Secret Political persecution (32.77%);
  • Terrorist violence (22.97%);
  • Misuse of weapons by government corruption (45.27%).
  1. Was the victim examined by a doctor at any point during or after his/her ordeal? If so, when? Was the examination performed by a prison or government doctor?

Hearing voices (which were/are sent to victims’ head by electromagnetic frequencies) were/are misdiagnosed to be phonism or mental illness by doctors

  1. Was appropriate treatment received for injuries sustained as a result of the torture?

I, Soleilmavis Liu, formally stated that I have not received any form of redress, repatriation, compensation nor rehabilitation resulting from these abuses.

These tortures have cost me my time, peace of mind (heightened anxieties) and lots of my own hard earned monies, this ever since trying to attempt further study at RMIT, Melbourne, Australia in 2001, and still continuing today, 2021.

All this sufferings inflicted on my persona with no appropriate treatment, or rehabilitation, or even any respite, from the ongoing psychological abuses/ tortures.

  1. Was the medical examination performed in a manner which would enable the doctor to detect evidence of injuries sustained as a result of the torture? Were any medical reports or certificates issued? If so, what did the reports reveal?

The doctor didn’t have necessary equipment’s that could detect abuses by, DEWs or MWs or electromagnetic frequencies.

The said doctors, as these technologies are new, didn’t have any of the correct or appropriate psychological training to assist or console me in any capacity, this at all.

These psychological tortures inflicted via Cyberotrture leaves no fingerprints, no evidence, and no physical scars.

 

Doctors who have publicly acknowledged the existence of the physical and psychological symptoms being caused by the electromagnetic weapons.

 

USA
(1) CCHR
CCHR Research work--Psychiatric and mind control
https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/cchr-research-work
http://www.cchr.org/psychiatry_an_industry_of_death_museum/psychiatric_torture_and_mind_control.html
(2) Moss David Posner, M.D. is a physician currently in practice in the California Department of Corrections. His article is about how to proof Mind Control Weapons and Directed Energy Weapons are using to torture and harass innocent civilians.
How to Control Americans—thought control mind control, disinformation and other naughty things-concl
http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/18774

 
(3) The Doctor Who Hears Voices
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=9040716330579641115&ei=F_vISOaDBo7EiALPjdW5Ag&q=The+Doctor+Who+Hears+Voices
The Doctor Who Hears Voices tells the true story of Ruth, a junior doctor, who has begun to hear a male voice telling her to kill herself. Suspended from her job, she turns to clinical psychologist Rufus May who is known for his unconventional approach to treating people with mental health problems. Although she admitted feeling depressed and suicidal to her employers, Ruth knows they would have sacked her immediately if she had told them about the voices.

(4) Murray Gillin Ph.D. Loris Gillin M. Ed (Psych), and Deva Paul
MIND CONTROL USING HOLOGRAPHY AND DISSOCIATION:. A PROCESS MODEL
March 2000
http://www.angelfire.com/ca/heart7/MindControl.pdf

(5) Cathy A. Meadows, Masters in Clinical Psychology.
Degree from: American International College, Springfield, Massachusetts.
Graduated: 1990 On-Call anytime. No appointment necessary. Sliding scale.
No government affiliations. Payments can be made by paypal.com or other ways can be worked out.
I do counseling for targeted individuals and I also do relationship and family counseling. I am on-call and I will answer the phone unless I am sleeping, eating, or on the phone with another client. phone: 707-720-7137

 

(6) Dr. Colin Ross

is a psychiatrist, internationally renowned researcher, author and lecturer. In addition toThe CIA Doctors and Military Mind Control, he is also author of Project Bluebird, in which he exposes unethical experiments conducted by psychiatrists to create amnesia, new identities, hypnotic access codes, and new memories in the minds of experimental subjects. His research is based on 15,000 pages of documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. Dr. Ross is a past president of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation. He is the founder and President of the Colin A. Ross Institute for Psychological Trauma.

-And more precisely on the http://www.aisjca-mft.org/testim.htm  file or on other ones?

 

Canada

Toronto Hospital is First to Recognize Symptoms from Wireless Radiation
http://www.womenscollegehospital.ca/news-and-events/connect/the-effects-of-invisible-waves
http://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/757245
http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/994377/toronto-hospital-is-first-to-recognize-symptoms-from-wireless-radiation
http://ivn.us/2012/06/24/electromagnetic-radiation-effects-canadian-hospital/


Europe

(1) Carole Smith, UK
Carole Smith is a member of The College of Psychoanalysts, and an accredited member of the United Kingdom Register of Psychotherapists. She trained at the Institute of Psychotherapy and Social Studies, and currently serves on their Ethics Committee.
https://peacepink.ning.com/forum/topics/yu-jing-shen-qin-hai-ji-shu-de

Auditory hallucinations: a comparison between patients and nonpatients
https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/auditory-hallucinations-a

(2) Dr Kieran McKormack - Worthen Surgery in Shropshire UK. He put on my notes that I was chased by the CIA. Now my family think that is made up. I have never mentioned this US group and never discussed it. It is pure fabrication and they are suspicious by this on my notes

(3) Dr F Murango - Pontesbury Surgery, Shrewsbury Shropshire UK. He tested my legs for heat, he said could I feel my legs. I said not really and then my legs heated up. This after copious amounts of research is related to the "magic room technique" written about in a torture manual from 1962. Written by Biderman and Zimmerman. This has huge conections with MKultra. They did it by using hands instead rather than legs. During that consultation he had three text messages, he tried to video me with a static video camcorder on a tripod. Now that is odd - a person with registrar status improving his patient contact and manner techniques was what he said he wanted the video camera for. Sorry - I do not believe that at all.

I have spoken to Rufus May - he thinks that the sensations we feel is related to trauma - text book crap. Not sure if he gets it to be honest. I applaud his non use of drugs anyway

(4) Dr.Rauni Kilde (Finland)
formerly the Chief Medical Officer for Lapland ( Finland ) , who know about this subject--- she write article " Microship implants, mindcontrol , and Cybernetics" . Now she has strill worked in that office .

(5) Dr. ANNA FUBINI--Italy
medico - specialista
nell' ELENCO PSICOTERAPEUTI

I am a Medicine Doctor also Psychoanalyst - to be pointed up: "also" not "only"! - A doctor who prefer to know and manage HEALTH and health issues than to work on fighting illnesses. But my really more personal and agreed interest is to observe, to study and then to describe the DEVELOPMENTAL PHASES of normal childhood.
All this can be reached on a Web site that I continually up-date: http://www.thrivingandhome.com/ and on the related books. The mail address to which one can contact and discuss these topics is informazioni@thrivingandhome.com .

But on working to care serious damaged persons I found the contrary of this optimistic evolutionary way to be: I met and became aware of the more evil wickedness of personal behavior, of personal purposes, of personal way to realize them. And so I built another Web site: http://www.aisjca-mft.org/ - which mail address is: associazione@aisjca-mft.org / also continually up-dated and source of mirroring books – It’s Abuse NOT Science fiction http://www.cortinalibri.it/catalog_view.php?folder=3&ID=155 and its farther issues Up-to-date Dossiers http://www.cortinalibri.it/catalog_view.php?folder=3&ID=181 .

It is to be pointed out that site and related books are a real Encyclopedic gather of collected different data and sources: then it needs to strongly dissuade to try to read in sequel the files/chapters; instead it fits to search time by time every wished topic through the main keywords of interest.
Any way the main chapters of the new book are Esperimenti su bambine/i and “Fake-mysteries on biological targets” but for being utterly informed it is necessary to go at
http://www.aisjca-mft.org/aiutoinfanzia.htm and at
http//www.aisjca-mft.org/fake-mysteries.htm   
In fact at present even the new book does not follow the quick progress of Web site: then if it is possible to read easily on paper, to be better informed it is suitable to go to the actually revised Web files.

  1. If the victim died in custody, was an autopsy or forensic examination performed and which were the results?

N/A, not a physical death, as per say, but, noxious deterioration of quality of my Human Life!

III. Remedial action

Were any domestic remedies pursued by the victim or his/her family or representatives (complaints with the forces responsible, the judiciary, political organs, etc.)? If so, what was the result?

(1)  All Governments and authorities I’ve approached pleading for help, all of my appeals, pleas, and my beseeching for assistance just for an end to the tortures, have been ignored, and continue to be brushed aside, with complete disregard.

(2)   The Australian Federal Government, and other Governments, did nothing to help me when I was suffering from the terrible abuses, anxieties and tortures inflicted by the peoples using electromagnetic weaponries on my persona, ever since 2001, continuing into 2021.

(3)   My life of abuses/ tortures started ever since studying for a Master Degree at RMIT, Melbourne, Australia in 2001.

  1. Information concerning the author of the present report:
  2. Family Name LIU
  3. First Name SOLEILMAVIS
  4. Relationship to victim Myself
  5. Organization represented, if any Peacepink@ https://peacepink.ning.com/

(an online help/ support group created by myself, Soleilmavis Liu)

  1. Present full address

Email: soleilmavis@yahoo.com

linkedin: soleilmavis

Read more…

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/call-for-inputs-from-the-un-special-rapporteur

Accountability for Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture to GA76

 

Questionnaire

 

In completing this questionnaire...

 

Ø please consider not only treaty law but, whenever appropriate, also custom and general principles of law, as well as interpretations provided in soft-law instruments and case law;

Ø please provide reasons or examples for your answers, and feel free to cross-reference your answers in case of overlap;

Ø please clarify whether your argument is based on existing international law (lex lata) or on your assessment of what the law "ought to be" (lex ferenda).

 

Please note that responses will be received and processed until 15 May 2021, and that no response or position taken will be nominally attributed.

Kindly send your contributions to: sr-torture@ohchr.org.

 

Thank you in advance for your valuable contribution to the work of this mandate.

 

Questions:

 

  1. Challenges to accountability: What are the most important legal, practical and other challenges that are conducive to the current worldwide accountability gap for torture and ill-treatment?

 

There are laws on the books which describe what is happening to victims of cyber torture in a general sense, such as:

  • Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states that:“No one shall be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”
  • Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states that: “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home, or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.”
  • Title 18 of United States Code, Section 242 states: “Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, ... shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both…” 
  • The state of Michigan’s House bill Number 4514, Harmful Device law which states: “A person shall not manufacture, deliver, possess, transport, place, use, or release any of the following for an unlawful purpose: (a) A harmful biological substance or a harmful biological device. (b) A harmful chemical substance or a harmful chemical device. (c) A harmful radioactive material or a harmful radioactive device. (d) A harmful electronic or electromagnetic device. (2) A person who violates subsection (1) is guilty of a crime as follows: (a) Except as provided in subdivisions (b) to (e), the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 15 years or a fine of not more than $10,000.00, or both.”
  • Massachusetts’ Law on the Use of Electronic Weapons, which states that: “No person shall possess a portable device or weapon from which an electrical current, impulse, wave or beam may be directed, which current, impulse, wave or beam is designed to incapacitate temporarily, injure or kill, except: (1) a federal, state or municipal law enforcement officer, or member of a special reaction team in a state prison or designated special operations or tactical team in a county correctional facility, acting in the discharge of his official duties who has completed a training course approved by the secretary of public safety in the use of such a device or weapon designed to incapacitate temporarily; or (2) a supplier of such devices or weapons designed to incapacitate temporarily, if possession of the device or weapon is necessary to the supply or sale of the device or weapon within the scope of such sale or supply enterprise. No person shall sell or offer for sale such device or weapon, except to federal, state or municipal law enforcement agencies.”
  • And the state of Maine’s 17-A §1004. CRIMINAL USE OF ELECTRONIC WEAPON law which states that: “Except as provided in subsection 4, a person is guilty of criminal use of an electronic weapon if the person intentionally, knowingly or recklessly uses an electronic weapon upon any other person.”

These laws articulate the rights of cyber torture victims in a general sense, however more specificity is needed to entirely accommodate the circumstances in which victims of microwave (MW) and/or directed energy weapons (DEW) attacks find themselves.  Many police officers are unaware of the technology involved and what techniques that would be needed to detect, apprehend, and prosecute abusers of MW and/or DEW’s. 

There are anti-stalking laws in all 50 states in the US, however, these laws do not include victims of multiple stalker situations which is the case for most victims of cyber torture.  Therefore, police and other law enforcement officers usually find that they cannot assist victims in these circumstances who may also be penalized further by officers who may decide to escort them to a mental facility. 

In case law, here a couple of examples where institutionalized torture in the form of human experimentation was utilized, but ultimately the abusers were held accountable after a period of time.

  • In 1988 the CIA paid Velma Orlikow and eight other plaintiffs (Orlikow v. United States, 682 F. Supp. 77 -D.D.C. 1988) a total of $750,000 for horrific mind control experiments which were conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron at Allen Memorial Institute of McGill University in Canada.
  • Then, in January, 2016, the Vietnam Veterans of America successfully sued the CIA, the Army, the Department of Defense et al in a case in pursuit of medical treatment for “injuries, disabilities or illnesses” suffered from human testing using more than 400 various chemical and biological substances such as LSD, mustard gas, sarin and BZ, during a period of five decades and involving tens of thousands of active duty personnel. Vietnam Veterans of America, et al. v. Central Intelligence Agency, et al. Case No. CV-09-0037-CW, U.S.D.C. (N.D. Cal. 2009)

In each of the above cases, the plaintiffs saw and knew their defendants, therefore the facts of the case could not be disputed.  This is a great luxury, however, considering the situation for most cyber torture victims.

 

  1. Functions, forms and levels of accountability: Please identify, explain, distinguish or compare the different functions (e.g. punitive/reparative, or proactive/preventative etc.), forms (e.g. legal, political, economic or social etc.) and levels (e.g. individual, collective, institutional, State etc.) of accountability for torture and ill-treatment.
  • One instance of systemic torture and abuse was the Abu Graib prison scandal where CBS News published a series of pictures in April of 2004 showing abhorrent human rights abuses that were happening at this US prison in Iraq. The pictures caused widespread international condemnation and outrage for the United States’ handling of prisoners of the Iraq war. The abuses involved physical and sexual abuse, torture, rape, sodomy, and murder.

In the aftermath of these revelations, the US department of Defense removed 17 officers and soldiers from duty. Eleven soldiers were charged with dereliction of duty, maltreatment, aggravated assault and battery. 

The above are instances where media attention can drive accountability for victims of torture. 

 

 

  1. Rights of victims: Who should be recognised as a victim of torture and illtreatment, and what are – or ought to be – victims’ procedural and substantive rights within accountability processes? Who else, if anyone, should be entitled to have access to and/or participate in accountability processes and mechanisms?
  • As with physical torture and psychological torture, cyber torture victims or remote physical torture victims need much more recognition in this society as viable sufferers at the hands of criminal assailants. With the recent reporting of microwave weapons and directed energy weapons attacks upon the American diplomats to Cuba and China recently, cyber torture may now start to gain awareness and recognition in the general public. This is much-needed for victims who are suffering incomprehensibly in some cases which we feel must be addressed immediately. 
  • There needs to be greater awareness of the existence of those victimized by microwave and directed energy weapons attacks among police officers, city councilmembers, civil and human rights attorneys, the governments, local communities, community groups, as well as the general public.

 

 

  1. Recommendations: Based on your experience and/or analysis of accountability in (2) and (3) above, what are the most effective mechanisms / measures and/or good practices that can or should be taken to respond to the challenges you identified in (1) so as to ensure accountability for torture and ill-treatment worldwide?"

Our recommendations include: 

  • The UN, the governments, Local, state, and/or federal Legislation which addresses the issues of cyber torture victims.
  • Training by law enforcement in detection, apprehension, and prosecution of perpetrators of microwave and directed energy weapons abuses.
  • Reporting protocols for MW and DEW victims must be established so that victims would have access to protective measures which also act as a deterrent to future harm.
  • Psychological remedies – for those suffering from PTSD. Many who are suffering from physical and psychological trauma imposed by the weaponry and other human rights violations of the abusers will need specialized psychological care to achieve restoration.

 

 

Thank you and Best Regards!

 

Soleilmavis Liu 

Creator of Peacepink.ning.com (about 5,000 members)

an online forum for the wordwide campaign ot stop the abuse and torture with remote electromagnetic mind control technologies and directed energy weapons.
Email: soleilmavis@yahoo.com

Location: Shandong Province, China


Attached:

(1) “Mind Control with Electromagnetic Frequency” presented by Soleilmavis at the E-leader conference held by Chinese American Scholars Association (USA) and Fudan University (China) in Shanghai, January 5-7,2015.
https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/mind-control-with-electromagnetic-frequency

(2) Book “Twelve Years in the Grave - Mind Control with Electromagnetic Spectrums, the Invisible Modern Concentration Camp,” provides the evidence of secret abuse and torture with voice-to-skull and remote electromagnetic mind control technologies.

http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/soleilmavis

Read more…

REUTERs -

US SENATE INTELLIGENCE LEADERS SAY MYSTERY ILLNESS ATTACKS INCREASING

As the article below suggests, this week has been quite busy for the issue of microwave weapons attacks with reports that the White House, the Senate Intelligence Committee, the Pentagon, the CIA and the State Department are all investigating incidents of microwave weapons attacks, reports of which seem to be increasing. 

During the past years, some victims had tried to complain the microwave attacks to Senator Marco Rubio on the Intelligence Committee.  

All of this is great news for victims as more reports continue rolling in.  

Link:  U.S. Senate intelligence leaders say mystery illness attacks increasing

Read more…

The Latest Call for Inputs from the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture

seeks Accountability for Torture and Degrading Treatment!

GREAT NEWS !!!  For those who have been awaiting some word from Nils Melzer, the Special Rapporteur on Torture, it seems he has not been sitting idle after all since delivering his report on cybertorture last year.  He is now preparing to take his mandate to the next level in calling for accountability for those who inflict torture and degrading treatment on their victims. 

He writes:  "in line with the Human Rights Council's encouragement to observe a victims-centred approach in the exercise of his mandate (HRC Res. 43/20), the Special Rapporteur considers it timely to dedicate his next interim report to the General Assembly to the topic of accountability for torture and ill-treatment."

Omg, it is so about time that someone is finally talking about accountability for the heinous atrocities that we see occurring daily in our community!

The next United Nations Human Rights Council meeting will be held June 21 - July 9, 2021. The questionnaire that the Special Rapporteur is calling for is due by May 15.  

Those who wish to visit his webpage and reply to his "Call for Inputs' may click here for the latest 'Call for Inputs' page.

The questionnaire itself may be found here at this link.

 

Read more…

The idea of covert microwave weapons attacks continues to play out in the news.. Check out this recent Forbes Magazine article about the Pentagon's search for a sensor that will detect when a soldier is under attack by microwave weapons. 

The Pentagon mentioned recent reports that the Chinese army microwaved Indian soldiers in a border dispute altercation.  

This means that other sectors of society may also start to realize the danger that these stealth weapons pose to everyone's health and safety.  

I am now hearing that Congress is starting to look into the danger for everyday citizens with the creation of a task force. There may be more soon to this developing story.  

So now appears to be the time to speak up to our representatives and investigative journalists about the covert abuses of microwave technology.

in the meantime here is a link to the Pentagon's efforts to protect soldiers from covert microwave attacks.  

The Pentagon Fears That Deadly Microwave Weapons Are Undetectable

https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelpeck/2021/03/02/the-pentagon-fears-that-deadly-microwave-weapons-are-undetectable/?sh=614e2633cc3f

Read more…

Soleilmavis' Letter to President Joe Biden

The United States got a new president: Joe Biden, but all the victims, who had been working hard to urge the governments to investigate the secret abuse and torture with electromagnetic mind control technologies for the past twenty years, need to continue hard. The following open letter used to write to President Barack Obama and Donald Trump, and it is now to President Joe Biden.

President Joe Biden

The White House

1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC 20500 

Dear President Joe Biden,

I am writing to urge you and the USA government to investigate the cover abuse and torture with remote voice-to-skull and electromagnetic mind control frequency technologies. 

I am a Chinese citizen, born and raised in China, who was first attacked by such technologies in December 2001, when I was studying for a Master`s Degree in Australia. At the time I was unfamiliar with remote electromagnetic weapons which can control thinking, behavior, emotions or decision making by attacking the brain and nervous system. Eventually, I came to learn of these technologies that are being secretly used or covered up by governments worldwide to control and harass the populace.

Noticeable effects started with some noises (whispering voices) which I heard from the floor below me or from the neighbors’ houses. The other people who lived in the same house could not hear them. Soon I started to experience a wide variety of symptoms. 

Majority of the symptoms were: pain all over the body, stomach pain, toothaches, headaches, involuntary hand tremors, inability to stand firmly on legs, alternation of cold and hot sensations, excessive perspiration, high fevers, constipation, faece and piss incontinence, sexual harassment, sleep deprivation, dream manipulation, artificial emotions (induced fear, anger, shame, joy, hate, sadness), and manipulation of memory (forgetting/remembering/screen memories). Torturers also can make me say things (forced speech). All those symptoms would disappear without any medical treatment, or sometimes, a pain would persist, even if I had strong medication. 

I was like a little trapped marionette being controlled by invisible strings. Some unknown people held the strings and controlled my actions: speaking, walking, eating, sleeping, and even my thoughts and emotions. 

Since 2002, I travelled to many places to try to escape from the torture and harassment. I had been to Hong Kong, Thailand, China, New Zealand. When I was in Hong Kong in April 2002, my brain was controlled by voice-to-skull and remote electromagnetic mind control technologies, and I was taken into the US Embassy in Hong Kong. (Details of the story can be read from my book: Twelve Years in the Grave.)

I am living in China now and still suffering the harassment and torture with these technologies. 

The proliferation of mind control technologies and their accompanying abuse and torture has become one of the twenty-first century’s greatest violations of human rights. Thousands of innocent victims across the globe have become activists for their freedom. We are demanding an international investigation into these crimes which constitute immense violations of the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 

I have published my book “Twelve Years in the Grave - Mind Control with Electromagnetic Spectrums, the Invisible Modern Concentration Camp” to let the public know details of my story. I presented my paper “Mind Control with Electromagnetic Frequency” at the E-Leader conference held by China Fudan University and CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) in Shanghai, January 5-7, 2015. 

Provided the fact that my brain was remotely controlled by voice-to-skull and electromagnetic mind control technologies, and I was taken into the US Embassy in Hong Kong, I urge the US government to take immediate actions to investigate my case. I also require the cooperation and support of the governments of Australia and China, and request assistance from the United Nations and other governments in investigating my case. 

Thank you and Best Regards!

Yours Sincerely, 

Soleilmavis Liu

Shandong, China

Book: “Twelve Years in the Grave - Mind Control with Electromagnetic Spectrums, the Invisible Modern Concentration Camp” http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/soleilmavis

Paper “Mind Control with Electromagnetic Frequency” 

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/mind-control-with-electro...

or http://www.g-casa.com/conferences/shanghai/paper_pdf/Liu-mindcontro...

It would be much appreciated that if you could kindly wide spread this letter to many people, groups, websites. More people spread this letter, more attention I would get from the President and the USA government.

All victims and supporters, please write your letters to the governments, the presidents and the public and urge all governments to investigate victims' cases immediately.

Read more…

Matthew Domin, 52, a TI who has newly-arrived in the Salem, Oregon area from Missouri with the prospect of a home there, however, the leads that he had did not materialize and he is on the streets.  

He is a Christian and in possession of many marketable skills such as accounting, was an instructor at a college, and many more.  He is a whistleblower and the system has been turned on him.   

Whatever help anyone can provide for him in terms of housing assistance and/or cash would be greatly appreciated.

Here is his contact information:  

Matthew Domin

Cell:  417-299-2653

Email:  mdomin4577@gmail.com

Paypal:  paypal.me/mattityahu

Read more…

The Mystery of the Immaculate Concussion
He was a senior CIA official tasked with getting tough on Russia. Then, one night in Moscow, Marc Polymeropoulos's life changed forever. He says he was hit with a mysterious weapon, joining dozens of American diplomats and spies who believe they’ve been targeted with this secret device all over the world—and even at home, on U.S. soil. Now, as a CIA investigation points the blame at Russia, the victims are left wondering why so little is being done by the Trump administration.

Read more…

THE OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE HAS PUBLISHED VICTIMS' DOCUMENTS IT HAS RECEIVED!

The office of the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture has published the documents it has received from its latest Call for Inputs on its website. 

This shows that the UN Special Rapporteur's office is taking our community's complaints seriously, that our situation has merit and we therefore, look forward to more from his office in the days ahead.

The list can be viewed at: 

https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Torture/SRTorture/Pages/CallGA75.aspx

The Special Rapporteur on Torture appears to make oblique references to our cause.   Their report can be found at this link:   https://www.undocs.org/en/A/75/179

Soleimavis Liu presented the paper "Mind Control with Electromagnetic Frequency" at the E-Leader conference held by Fudan University (China) and Chinese American Scholars Association (USA) in Shanghai, January 5-7, 2015.

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/mind-control-with-electromagnetic-frequency

Read more…

THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE REPORTS TO THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL ON "CYBERTORTURE"

There is good news for those following international TI activism and as far as I'm aware this is a first for our community! Magnus Ollsson and Henning Witte with the help of Liliana O'Connor, who has a 25-year employment history with the UN and ICATOR, the international TI coalition organization of which PACTS is one part representing the United States, have managed to obtain entry to attend the United Nations Human Rights Council meeting in Geneva, Switzerland for this current session (February 24 - March 20).

This is a MAJOR step forward for our activism to be represented in this most respected international organization.  There are naysayers about our involvement in the UN however, the UN Human Rights Council is THE premiere international human rights organization on the planet in my opinion and their giving our issues a platform is HUGE in terms of awareness, visibility, and credibility for our cause. 

Click on this link to see a list in Google of all the world news outlets that reported on the Rapporteur's speech and his use of the term 'cybertorture.'

Magnus and Henning plan to report soon on their activities, including a planned meeting with Nils Melzer, the UN Rapporteur on Torture.

In the meantime, it seems that our community outreach efforts to Nils Melzer may have paid off after all. Mr. Melzer presented his speech to the United Nations Human Rights Council today on the subject of "psychological torture", and more specifically in regards to us, something he called 'cybertorture' which includes the use of "neurotechnologies."

He states in his report that "individuals or groups systematically targeted by cyber-surveillance and cyber-harassment generally are left without any effective means of defense, escape or self-protection and at least in this respect often find themselves in a situation of "powerlessness" comparable to physical custody." 

And that "much more systematic, government-sponsored threats and harassment delivered through cyber-technologies not only entail a situation of effective powerlessness, but may well inflict levels of anxiety, stress, shame and guilt amounting to “severe mental suffering” as required for a finding of torture."

Click on the link below to read Mr. Melzer's entire report:  

Report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture and other cruel, inhuman treatment of punishment

Read more…

surveyresults19Dec.doc

An Anonymous Survey for Mind Control Victims

Results  (19 Dec 2009)

 

No of records in this query: 296
Percentage of total: 100.00%

 

Field Summary for 1:  Sex

Answer

Count

Percentage

Female (F)

130

43.92%

Male (M)

166

56.08%

 

Field Summary for 2:  Age

Answer

Count

Percentage

10-20 (1)

13

4.39%

21-30 (2)

64

21.62%

31-40 (3)

87

29.39%

41-50 (4)

70

23.65%

51-60 (5)

42

14.19%

61-70 (6)

15

5.07%

above 70 (7)

5

1.69%

 

Field Summary for 3: Age when you were aware of being a target

Answer

Count

Percentage

10-20 (1)

69

23.31%

21-30 (2)

92

31.08%

31-40 (3)

49

16.55%

41-50 (4)

59

19.93%

51-60 (5)

21

7.09%

61-70 (6)

5

1.69%

above 70 (7)

1

0.34%

 

Field Summary for 4: Year Torture Begain

Answer

Count

Percentage

1970-1980 (1)

29

9.80%

1981-1990 (2)

40

13.51%

1991-1995 (3)

34

11.49%

1996 (4)

18

6.08%

1997 (5)

5

1.69%

1998 (6)

11

3.72%

1999 (7)

6

2.03%

2000 (8)

16

5.41%

2001 (9)

17

5.74%

2002 (10)

15

5.07%

2003 (11)

12

4.05%

2004 (12)

21

7.09%

2005 (13)

15

5.07%

2006 (14)

17

5.74%

2007 (15)

11

3.72%

2008 (16)

23

7.77%

2009 (17)

6

2.03%

 

Field Summary for 5: In which country and Territory do you live?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Afghanistan AF (1)

1

0.34%

Albania AL (2)

2

0.68%

American Samoa AS (4)

1

0.34%

 

Antarctica AQ (8)

1

0.34%

 

Australia AU (13)

5

1.69%

 

Bangladesh BD (18)

1

0.34%

 

Belgium BE (21)

3

1.01%

 

Bolivia BO (26)

1

0.34%

 

Bouvet Island BV (29)

1

0.34%

 

Canada CA (38)

15

5.07%

 

Chile CL (43)

1

0.34%

China CN (44)

84

28.38%

 

France FR (73)

1

0.34%

 

Germany DE (80)

9

3.04%

 

India IN (98)

3

1.01%

 

Japan JP (105)

21

7.09%

 

Lithuania LT (119)

2

0.68%

Luxembourg LU (120)

4

1.35%

 

Netherlands NL (145)

1

0.34%

 

Romania RO (170)

3

1.01%

Russian Federation RU (171)

2

0.68%

 

Serbia and Montenegro CS (181)

1

0.34%

 

Singapore SG (184)

1

0.34%

 

Sweden SE (199)

1

0.34%

Switzerland CH (200)

2

0.68%

Taiwan TW (201)

8

2.70%

 

Thailand TH (204)

1

0.34%

 

United Kingdom GB (217)

14

4.73%

United States US (218)

99

33.45%

 

Yemen YE (230)

1

0.34%

 

Field Summary for 6:  Your Nationality

Answer

Count

Percentage

Afghanistan AF (1)

2

0.68%

Albania AL (2)

2

0.68%

American Samoa AS (4)

2

0.68%

 

Australia AU (13)

4

1.35%

 

Bangladesh BD (18)

1

0.34%

 

Belgium BE (21)

1

0.34%

 

Bouvet Island BV (29)

1

0.34%

 

Canada CA (38)

8

2.70%

 

Chad TD (42)

1

0.34%

China CN (44)

89

30.07%

 

France FR (73)

1

0.34%

 

Germany DE (80)

9

3.04%

 

Hungary HU (96)

2

0.68%

India IN (98)

3

1.01%

Iraq IQ (100)

1

0.34%

Ireland IE (101)

2

0.68%

Israel IL (102)

1

0.34%

Italy IT (103)

11

3.72%

Japan JP (105)

22

7.43%

 

Lithuania LT (119)

2

0.68%

 

Netherlands NL (145)

1

0.34%

 

Peru PE (163)

1

0.34%

 

Poland PL (166)

1

0.34%

Puerto Rico PR (167)

1

0.34%

 

Romania RO (170)

3

1.01%

Russian Federation RU (171)

3

1.01%

 

Saudi Arabia SA (179)

1

0.34%

Senegal SN (180)

1

0.34%

 

Singapore SG (184)

1

0.34%

 

South Georgia and The South Sandwich Islands GS (190)

1

0.34%

South Korea KR (191)

1

0.34%

 

Sweden SE (199)

2

0.68%

Switzerland CH (200)

1

0.34%

Taiwan TW (201)

8

2.70%

 

Thailand TH (204)

1

0.34%

 

Turkey TR (210)

1

0.34%

 

United Kingdom GB (217)

15

5.07%

United States US (218)

88

29.73%

 

Field Summary for 7:  Educational Level

Answer

Count

Percentage

Primary School (1)

3

1.01%

Secondary School (2)

21

7.09%

Senior High school (3)

61

20.61%

College (4)

101

34.12%

Bachelore Degree (5)

69

23.31%

Master Degree (6)

25

8.45%

Doctor Degree (7)

16

5.41%

 

Field Summary for 8: Where were you first aware that you were a target?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Afghanistan AF (1)

1

0.34%

 

American Samoa AS (4)

1

0.34%

 

Antarctica AQ (8)

1

0.34%

 

Australia AU (13)

6

2.03%

 

Bangladesh BD (18)

1

0.34%

Barbados BB (19)

1

0.34%

Belgium BE (21)

2

0.68%

 

Bolivia BO (26)

1

0.34%

 

Canada CA (38)

16

5.41%

 

Chad TD (42)

1

0.34%

 

China CN (44)

84

28.38%

 

France FR (73)

1

0.34%

 

Germany DE (80)

7

2.36%

Ghana GH (81)

1

0.34%

 

Hungary HU (96)

1

0.34%

India IN (98)

4

1.35%

 

Japan JP (105)

21

7.09%

 

Kuwait KW (110)

1

0.34%

 

Lithuania LT (119)

1

0.34%

 

Mexico MX (134)

1

0.34%

 

Netherlands NL (145)

1

0.34%

 

Romania RO (170)

3

1.01%

Russian Federation RU (171)

2

0.68%

 

Singapore SG (184)

1

0.34%

 

Sweden SE (199)

2

0.68%

Taiwan TW (201)

7

2.36%

 

Thailand TH (204)

2

0.68%

 

United Kingdom GB (217)

14

4.73%

United States US (218)

102

34.46%

 

Field Summary for 9: What was your occupation when you first became aware that you were a target?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Answer

295

99.66%

No answer

1

0.34%

 

Field Summary for 10: Have you been forced to accept psychiatric treatment?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Yes (Y)

149

50.34%

No (N)

147

49.66%

 

Field Summary for 11:  If Yes, How long have you been forced to accept psychiatric treatment?

Answer

Count

Percentage

No answer

76

25.68%

1-3 months (1)

66

22.30%

4-6 months (2)

12

4.05%

7-12 months (3)

4

1.35%

1 year (4)

10

3.38%

2-3 years (5)

17

5.74%

4-5 years (6)

11

3.72%

6-8 years (7)

9

3.04%

9-10 years (8)

1

0.34%

above 10 years (9)

20

6.76%

 

Field Summary for 12: How did you feel after you had taken your treatment? Any good or bad effects?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Answer

195

65.88%

No answer

101

34.12%

 

Field Summary for 13:  Please describe where you live?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Own a house or apartment (1)

66

22.30%

Rent a house or apartment (2)

100

33.78%

Stay with family members (3)

99

33.45%

Stay with friends (4)

13

4.39%

Homeless (5)

9

3.04%

Others (6)

9

3.04%

 

Field Summary for 14:  How do you get money to support your life?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Previous Savings (1)

32

10.81%

Accept donations (2)

2

0.68%

Government unemployment benefits (3)

34

11.49%

Support from family members or friends (4)

76

25.68%

Salaries (5)

96

32.43%

others (6)

56

18.92%

 

Field Summary for 15:  Can you describe your current financial situation? (If you have income, please give your annual income)

Answer

Count

Percentage

No income (1)

82

27.70%

1-1000 USD (2)

46

15.54%

1001-3000 USD (3)

44

14.86%

3001-5000 USD (4)

13

4.39%

5001-10000 USD (5)

35

11.82%

10001-30000 USD (6)

43

14.53%

30001-50000 USD (7)

16

5.41%

50001-100000 USD (8)

9

3.04%

Above 100000 USD (9)

8

2.70%

 

Field Summary for 16:  What symptoms did you experience as possible result of this technology?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Hot and Cold Flashes (1)

148

50.00%

Nausea (2)

151

51.01%

Severe sweating (3)

119

40.20%

Induced Sleep (4)

193

65.20%

Sleep deprivation (5)

233

78.72%

Extreme Fatigue (6)

203

68.58%

Blurred Vision (7)

170

57.43%

Sensations of pain in internal organs (8)

183

61.82%

Sensations of pain in Backbone, arms, legs, muscles (9)

174

58.78%

Numbness and tingling, Paresthesias, Loss of sensation (10)

144

48.65%

Muscle Cramps /Spasms/tension (11)

167

56.42%

Sudden Headaches (12)

189

63.85%

Irregular Heartbeat (13)

180

60.81%

False Heart Attacks (14)

115

38.85%

Tooth Pain (15)

149

50.34%

Diarrhea. (16)

131

44.26%

Acute inflammation/autoimmunity reactions (17)

75

25.34%

Autoimmune disorders like Fibromyalgia (18)

50

16.89%

Urinary tract infections (19)

53

17.91%

Skin problems and skin irritations (20)

149

50.34%

Change in growing of hair and nails (21)

95

32.09%

Female problems which eventually lead to hysterectomy (22)

24

8.11%

Cancer (23)

13

4.39%

Fevers (24)

68

22.97%

Flulike Symptoms /Sneezing (25)

126

42.57%

Dizziness or Loss of Balance (26)

164

55.41%

Sudden loss of consciousness (27)

91

30.74%

Benign or Malignant Tumors (28)

24

8.11%

Sensation of Electric Current Running through the Body (29)

161

54.39%

Induced Thoughts/ telepathic communication, messages (30)

191

64.53%

Hearing "voices" (reception of auditory acoustic weapon transmissions or similar) (31)

201

67.91%

Seeing "Holograms" (32)

124

41.89%

Dream Manipulation (33)

211

71.28%

Artificial Emotions (induced fear, anger, shame, joy, hate, sadness) (34)

201

67.91%

Sudden unexpected" Sexual Arousal (35)

159

53.72%

Genital manipulation (36)

163

55.07%

Induced Smells (37)

154

52.03%

Sudden extreme moodswings (depression - euphoria) (38)

142

47.97%

Induced pleasure-aversion reactions towards people or objects (39)

133

44.93%

Making you say things (forced speech) (40)

135

45.61%

General behaviour control in some situations (41)

147

49.66%

Manipulation of Memory (forgetting/remembering/screen memories) (42)

199

67.23%

Remote steering of eye movements (43)

114

38.51%

Remote steering of body movements /motor control (44)

126

42.57%

Virtual reality experiences while awake (45)

104

35.14%

 

Field Summary for 17:  In what ways has being targeted harmed your life?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Daily Physical Pain (1)

159

53.72%

Fear of Anticipated Pain (2)

105

35.47%

Misdiagnosed by Doctors and wrong medication (3)

148

50.00%

forced to accept psychiatric treatment (4)

129

43.58%

Unusual Attention/Worry regarding future quality of life (5)

183

61.82%

Fear of set-up of stalking scenarios (6)

139

46.96%

Hindered Family Participation and Involvement (7)

178

60.14%

Loss of Friends (8)

197

66.55%

Workplace Humiliation (9)

154

52.03%

My Family's Subtle Questioning of my Sanity (10)

173

58.45%

Melancholy and Sadness (11)

174

58.78%

Fatigue/No Energy (12)

197

66.55%

Character Assassination and Slander (13)

212

71.62%

General Distrust (14)

173

58.45%

Privacy and Communication Invasion (15)

241

81.42%

General Loss of Freedom to Travel (16)

120

40.54%

Loss of Income and Upward Mobility (17)

188

63.51%

Lose the ability to work and study (18)

207

69.93%

Excess Attention to Protection Strategies/Microwave Frequency Shielding in lieu of normal pleasurable hobbies and daily living activities (19)

169

57.09%

 

Field Summary for 18:

What possible reasons (if any) can you think of as to why you became a target?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Government Secret Human Experiment or Scientists Secret Human Experiment supporting by Government (1)

172

58.11%

Scientists Secret Human Experiment (2)

109

36.82%

Government Secret War (3)

99

33.45%

Secret Political persecution (4)

97

32.77%

Terrorist violence (5)

68

22.97%

Misuse of weapons by government corruption (6)

134

45.27%

Others (7)

157

53.04%

 

Field Summary for 19:  Have you complained to your government or anybody else?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Yes (Y)

200

67.57%

No (N)

96

32.43%

 

Field Summary for 20:  And, if so, what responses have you had?

Answer

Count

Percentage

Answer

237

80.07%

No answer

59

19.93%

 

Field Summary for 21:  You can give your name and other information here. (everyone can view your information)

Answer

Count

Percentage

Answer

208

70.27%

No answer

88

29.73%

 

Read more…

Happy New Year!

timg?image&quality=80&size=b9999_10000&sec=1577938209006&di=8c2f30af04cadf651b2ed67ebfd3bbe2&imgtype=0&src=http%3A%2F%2Fimage.thepaper.cn%2Fwww%2Fimage%2F44%2F10%2F113.gif

I hope and pray that everyone has a much better year.

I greatly appreciate every member in peacepink, supporting each other, hand in hand together.

And I pray for an end to these crimes and for peace in all the world.

Read more…

All victims shall contact the following organization.

NEW YORK CITY HUMAN RIGHTS LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION!

Link:  New York City Commission on Human Rights

HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/cchr/downloads/pdf/TITLE_8_Human%20Rights%20
Law_May%202019.pdf

"In the city of New York, with its great cosmopolitan population, there is no greater danger to the health, morals, safety and welfare of the city and its inhabitants than the existence of groups prejudiced against one another and antagonistic to each other because of their actual or perceived differences, including those based on race, color, creed, age, national origin, alienage or citizenship status, gender, sexual orientation, disability, marital status, partnership status, caregiver status, sexual and reproductive health decisions, uniformed service, any lawful source of income, status as a victim of domestic violence or status as a victim of sex offenses or stalking, whether children are, may be or would be residing with a person or conviction or arrest record. The council hereby finds and declares that prejudice, intolerance, bigotry, and discrimination, bias-related violence or harassment and disorder occasioned thereby threaten the rights and proper privileges of its inhabitants and menace the institutions and foundation of a free democratic state. The council further finds and declares that gender-based harassment threatens the terms, conditions and privileges of employment. A city agency is hereby created with power to eliminate and prevent discrimination from playing any role in actions relating to employment, public accommodations, and housing and other real estate, and to take other actions against prejudice, intolerance, bigotry, discrimination, sexual harassment and bias-related violence or harassment as herein provided; and the commission established hereunder is hereby given general jurisdiction and power for such purposes."

Read more…

UN questionnaire for Psychological Torture

UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE TO ADDRESS "NO-TOUCH TORTURE" IN MARCH, 2020!

Nils Melzer, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, has apparently become aware of "no-touch torture" after having visited Julian Assange in May of this year.  It is widely known that Julian is definitely a targeted individual and is suffering greatly in a variety of ways that many in our community would recognize. 

Mr. Melzer is now requesting information from "experts and stakeholders" and plans to submit his report to Geneva, Switzerland, the headquarters for the United Nations Human Rights Council in March of 2020. 

For more information and to read the official request from his office, please click here. 

https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Torture/SRTorture/Pages/Call.aspx?fbclid=IwAR008rM5Oq2Ug-5ubR3u-y5dZVmRLg0yjcnvJJ34wZdCyb_Wy-59MugkILQ ;

Call for submissions on Psychological Torture and Ill-Treatment

The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CIDTP), Nils Melzer, has decided to focus his next thematic report on "Psychological Torture and Ill-Treatment” The report will be submitted to the Human Rights Council in March 2020.

In this context, the Special Rapporteur will welcome all relevant submissions that Member States, UN Agencies, civil society and academia may wish to transmit on the thematic of Psychological Torture and Ill-Treatment.

Please complete the questionnaire and send your submissions to: sr-torture@ohchr.org . None of the responses will be attributed to their authors or considered to reflect the official position of the State or institution in question.

Deadline for Submissions: 25 November 2019

I am writing my questionnaire and have finished parts of the questions. I need everyone's help to finish the left parts.

         %28Soleilmavis%29QuestionnairePsychologicalTorture.docx

Please see attached questionnaire in word document.

If you can help, please finish it and send to soleilmavis@yahoo.com

Thank you and Best Regards!

Soleilmavis

Read more…

The event organizer, Shad Budge: 

Greetings, 

We were unable to successfully host the Global Neuroethics Conference, which was scheduled to take place in early August.  All three speakers cancelled just weeks before the event, and we failed to find any replacements within the limited time frame. We never received any specific reasoning as to why the speakers had to cancel, despite our numerous requests. It was quite heartbreaking to say the least; as we put our hearts and souls into the production of the conference for six months. We know how many people were disappointed in the cancellation of this event, and we offer our sincerest apologies.  

The main goal of the conference was to give the Neuro-Specific Human Rights Bill a significant platform prior to the upcoming Canadian federal election in October. We are now lobbying directly to current Members of Parliament for sponsorship regarding the support of this bill. We will be donating funds to the campaigns of certain MPs in exchange for live meetings where we can provide them in-person presentations. These presentations will elaborate on how vital these human rights are, and the potential unintended consequences that could arise if we do not enact them into legislation. We strongly believe that we can find numerous MPs that would be willing to sponsor this bill, and use it as a part of their campaign platform for the upcoming federal election.  

We are still looking for help in perfecting the bill, and eliminating any potential loopholes that may surreptitiously allow the rights to be violated. The type of people we are looking for are: lawyers (who specialize in constitutional law), neuroscientists, neuroethicists, technology developers, and human rights advocates. After a large enough precedent has been set, we firmly believe that this bill will be enacted into the legislation of every country worldwide. We will not rest until we achieve this goal, and the cerebra of every man, woman, and child are protected. Please forward this message to anyone that you think would be interested in assisting with our efforts. 

Kind Regards,  

Shad Budge  
Neuroethicist and Human Rights Activist  
The Human Rights Global Coalition  

PLEASE sign our petition in support of the Neuro-Specific Human Rights Bill here: chng.it/pkCvhRMS   

Watch our latest video describing the bill here: www.youtube.com/watch?v=gFLBrd3vuIw   

Visit our website here: www.globalneuroethics.com   

Please help us enact the Neuro-Specific Human Rights Bill into legislation by sharing the links above on all social media platforms! 

The conference  was going on as scheduled on Saturday, August 3, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 

An impressive lineup of speakers was on the roster for the event: 

  • James Giordano, Ph.D., Georgetown University
  • Michael Hoffer, MD, University of Miami
  • James Canton, Ph.D., Global futurist, social scientist, author, and visionary business advisor.

Those that would like more information, may visit the event website at:  http://www.globalneuroethics.com/

Read more…

Amy Anderson recently received this letter of support from one of her City Council representatives in the city of Richmond, California.  The text is below: 

Dear Amy Anderson, 

Other members of the Richmond City Council and I, Councilman Nathaniel Bates are much aware of your efforts to enact a city based legislation regulating local authority and innovative space-based technology of which directly falls under federal and international jurisdiction.  The Space Preservation Act of 2001 reaffirmed US policy that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes.  

As you also are aware, the City of Richmond has done what it can to acknowledge and support individuals who claim to be Targeted Individuals (TI) by adopting Resolution 51-15 in support of targeted individuals who claim to be under assault from space based weaponry and rreferenced the Space Preservation Act (SPA). The SPA was introduced to the 107th Congress, HR 1977 to preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.  The resolution demonstrates the City's support of these proposed actions and more importantly, support for those individuals who identify themselves as targets of space-based weapons. 

Per your request, this letter is of my support on your efforts of seeking further legislative direction by contacting Mark DeSaulnier's Office. I wish you the best on taking further steps and commend you for being a strong advocate for the TI community.  

Sincerely, 

Nathaniel Bates, Councilman and former Mayor of Richmond, CA

9143220884?profile=original

Read more…

8. Originally, the Descendants of Hua Xia were not the Descendants of Yan Huang.

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and Masaryk University, BRNO, Czech Republic, in Jun 2019.

Many Chinese people claimed that they are descendants of Yan Huang, while claiming that they are descendants of Hua Xia. (Yan refers to Yan Di, Huang refers to Huang Di and Xia refers to the Xia Dynasty). Are these truth or false? We will find out from Shanhaijing’s records and modern archaeological discoveries.

 Abstract:                                                                        

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups first lived in the Pamirs Plateau, soon gathered in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and west of the Qinghai Lake and learned from each other advanced sciences and technologies, later spread out to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. The Yan Di’s offspring spread out to the west of the Taklamakan Desert; The Huang Di’s offspring spread out to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas; The Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s offspring spread out to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, where the Di Jun’s offspring lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s territories, which were near the sea or in the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records.

Archaeological discoveries prove Dong Yi Culture, which was built by the Shao Hao People in the Shandong Peninsula, was the most advanced Neolithic Chinese culture, greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. The Nü He People (called Mother of Yue (moon) in Shanhaijing), who lived in the Jiaodong (eastern Shandong) Peninsula, was one group of the Shao Hao People, had worried about the sea level rising and had sent the Xi He and Chang Xi People to the west of the Shandong Peninsula to expand the scope of their territories. The Nü He (including Xi He and Chang Xi) were the main founders of Dong Yi Culture and held the most advanced science and technologies during the Neolithic Age. They built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures, the earliest Chinese Maritime Culture. They were also the founders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy and Calendar.

It is believed that the name of “Hua Xia” came from the earliest Chinese nations - Hua and Xia, which were the roots of Chinese civilization. The Hua Nation was built by the Hua (Nü He) People as early as Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE) in the eastern Shandong Peninsula and the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE) was built by the Great Yu, an offspring of the Di Jun People, about 4500 years BP in the area between today’s Tongguan and Erlitou along the Yellow River, where early Longshan Dong Yi Culture had turned these Di Qiang Culture regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 Certainly, the Hua and Xia People were the main sources of ancient Chinese in the Yellow and Changjiang River valleys. Archeologists have found Chinese character Hua in ancient Shang Oracle bone scripts referred to a kind of sacrifice to Shang’s ancestors, suggesting the Shang’s emperors regarded the Hua People as their ancestors. However, due to the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BCE) falsely fabricating that Yan Di and Huang Di were common ancestors of all ancient Chinese people, including the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao, many ancient Chinese historical books recorded these falses. Meanwhile, the descendants of Yan Di and Huang Di, who lived in the northern and northwestern Asia, kept invading the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, many Chinese people claimed that they were the descendants of Yan Huang.

Read the full paper: 

Part I:  https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/hua-xia-yan-huang1

Part II: https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/hua-xia-yan-huang2

7. The Nü He People were the Funders of the Earliest Neolithic Chinese Astronomy, Calendar, Maritime Culture and “He” Culture.

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo in Jan 2019.

Abstract:                                                                       

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Yan Di and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups of people, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, later spread to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. The Shao Hao’s offspring spread out from the west of the Qinghai Lake to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records. Shanhaijing’s records and archaeological discoveries reveal that the Nü He People, one group of the Shao Hao People, was called Mother of Yue (moon), lived in the eastern Shandong Peninsula, held the most advanced science and technologies and built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures during the Neolithic Age. It is believed that the Nü He People were the funders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy, Calendar and Maritime Culture. The Nü He People were also the root of Chinese “He” Culture, which is the quintessence of Chinese Han Culture.

Read the full paper:

Part I: https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/part1nvhe

Part II: https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/part2nvhe

6. The Di Jun People were the Ancestors of the Xia Dynasty

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and SGH Warsaw School of Economics in Poland in June 2018.
Abstract:
Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Yan Di and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups of people, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, later spread to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. Shanhaijing reveals the Di Jun’s offspring spread out from the west of the Qinghai Lake to the middle reach of the Yellow River and the Great Yu, an offspring of the Di Jun People, lived in the Qing Yao Mountain in the south of the Yellow River near its big bend, which was near today’s Tongguan in the boundary of Shaanxi and Henan provinces. Historians agree that the Great Yu, whose time was about 4,500 years BP, was the founder of the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE), the first dynasty in China to be described in many ancient historical chronicles. Chinese archaeologists generally identify Erlitou (about 1900-1500BCE), Yanshi of Henan Province, as the site of the Xia Dynasty. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records.

Read the full paper:

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/dijun

5. The Zhuan Xu People were the Founders of Sanxingdui Culture and Earliest Inhabitants of South Asia

Jan 4, 2018

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and and Stamford International University at 388 Sukhumvit, Klongtoey, Bangkok, in January 2018.
Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Yan Di and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of individuals, but also the names of groups who regarded them as common male ancestors. These groups used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, later spread to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. Shanhaijing reveals Zhuan Xu’s offspring lived near the Tibetan Plateau in their early time. They were the first who entered the Tibetan Plateau, but almost perished due to the great environment changes, later moved to the south. Some of them entered the Sichuan Basin and became the founders of Sanxingdui Culture. Some of them even moved to the south of the Tibetan Plateau, living near the sea. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records.

Read the full paper:

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/the-zhuan-xu-people-were-the-founders-of-sanxingdui-culture-and-e

4. The Shao Hao People Took the Leading Role of Building Ancient Chinese Civilization

Jun 7, 2017

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and BITS (University of Business Leadership) at Dessauer Str. 3-5, 10963, Berlin, in June 2017.
Many people claimed that Huang Di was the ancestor of all Chinese people and some Chinese people proudly call themselves “descendants of Dragon.” However, Shanhaijing’s records and modern archaeological discoveries have revealed that the Shao Hao People, who worshipped birds totems during the Neolithic Age, took the leading role in building ancient Chinese civilization.

Read the full paper:

Part One: https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/the-shao-hao-people-took-the-leading-role-in-building-ancient-chi

Part Two: https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/the-shao-hao-people-took-the-leading-role-in-building-ancient-ch

3. Earliest Dragon Worship in Ancient China Came from the Huang Di People

Jan 5, 2017

Soleilmavis presented this paper at the recent E-Leader conference held by Macao University and Chinese American Scholars Association in Macao, January 3-4, 2017.
Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people (or tribes) in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Yan Di and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of individuals, but also the names of tribes who regarded them as common ancestors. These groups used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, later spread to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. Shanhaijing reveals Huang Di’s offspring worshipping dragon. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records. The dragon shape stone pile in Xinglongwa Culture (6200-5400BCE) and jade dragons in Hongshan Culture (4000-3000BCE) suggest the earliest dragon worship in ancient China came from the Huang Di People.

Read the full paper:

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/the-earliest-dragon-worship-in-ancient-china-came-from-the-huang-

2. History, Culture and Migration of the Dong-Yi People

Jun 7, 2016

Soleilmavis presented this paper at the recent E-Leader conference held by Vienna University of Technology and Chinese American Scholars Association in Vienna, June, 2016.
The Dong-Yi People (Dong in Chinese means east) lived in the Shandong Peninsula in the Neolithic Age. There they built one of the most important Neolithic cultures, which later spread to the lower reaches of the Yellow and Huai rivers. Its latter stage, the Longshan Culture (about 3200BCE-1900BCE), spread to the areas of early Di-Qiang Culture, another Chinese Neolithic culture that originated from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, and turned those areas into outposts of Longshan Culture. Thus Dong-Yi Culture greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Culture the root of Chinese civilization.
The Dong-Yi People also migrated to the Americas and Oceania in the Neolithic Age, where their culture had great influence. The ancient civilizations of Oceanic cultures, such as palae-Polynesian, palae-Melanesian and palae-Micronesian cultures; and American Indians civilizations, such as the Mayan (about 2000BCE-900CE), the Aztec (about 12th century - 15th century CE) and the Incan (about 13th century - 15th century CE) civilizations, all evolved from early Dong-Yi Culture.
This article briefly introduces certain historical records of the Dong-Yi People, including their origins, their history of cultivating wheat, their worship of bird totems, their relationship with other groups of Neolithic people, their racial characteristics, their migrations and the overall influence of Dong-Yi Culture upon subsequent communities. In the book “The Queen of the South in Matthew 12:42” written by Soleilmavis, there are more details about the Dong-Yi People, Dong-Yi Culture and how they influenced ancient civilizations of China, the Americas and Oceania.

Read the full paper: https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/dong-yi-people

1. The Change of Rural Leadership in China

Feb 2, 2015

Soleilmavis presented this paper at the recent E-Leader conference held by Fudan University and Chinese American Scholars Association in Shanghai, January 3-4, 2015.
China had a long history of thousands of years of ancient civilization. During the long history, the Chinese political system evolved from the Feudalism System and Patriarchal Clan System in the Zhou Dynasty into Feudalism system and Monarchical Centralism System in the Qin and Han dynasties, and lasted for more than 2,000 years. The Feudalism System, based on a smallscale peasant economy, and Patriarchal Clan culture, the most important part of Han Culture, were two important aspects to influence the political system and rural leadership in ancient China. The Feudalism System and Monarchical Centralism System were destroyed after the Republic of China. Since the People’s Republic of China was set up, the government tried hard to search for the best political system and rural leadership, but it had paid a high price for making some costly mistakes.

The book, The Struggles of an Ordinary Man - The Turbulent History of China Through a Farmer’s Eyes from 1900 to 2000, which is the true record of one hundred years of modern history in rural areas of the Eastern Shandong Peninsula from 1900 to 2000, talks not only one but a group of grass-root level leaders in rural China, who have been struggling hard during the turbulent modern history of china, and searching for the appropriate leadership to lead common rural people to develop a better country. By studying the history and past mistakes, we would learn that the best political system and rural leadership should conform to the productive forces level of development, and meet the needs of traditional culture.

Read more…

Most of us are familiar with Dr. Michael Hoffer, the physician who examined the US diplomats to Cuba with the 'Havana Syndrome.'  

Tonight we finally hear from a TI who has actually been to see him. 

Jax found him to be extremely knowledgeable about our issues, including the weaponry.  And she reports that he and his staff are open to examining more TI's and he may even help educate other doctors worldwide about how they can help their patients who are targeted individuals.  

Hopefully more TI's will visit with him and his staff so that we will begin to develop a network of physicians who can assist our community. 

This will establish validation of our targeting among medical personnel, and then with the general population. 

From Jax:  "I urge everyone to contact me, Jax Domnitz, via email:  jax@langineers.com to sign up to visit Dr. Hoffer. I will need to know your name, phone #, city and state, your type of insurance and tell you how to get an appointment. I will give [information] to everyone who is ABSOLUTELY POSITIVE that they are going to see Dr. Hoffer;  Not wishful thinking.  [He has the] actual ability to... help us eradicate DEWs.  This is a very good first step."

Read more…

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and Masaryk University, BRNO, Czech Republic, in Jun 2019.

Many Chinese people claimed that they are descendants of Yan Huang, while claiming that they are descendants of Hua Xia. (Yan refers to Yan Di, Huang refers to Huang Di and Xia refers to the Xia Dynasty). Are these truth or false? We will find out from Shanhaijing’s records and modern archaeological discoveries.

 

Abstract:                                                                        

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups first lived in the Pamirs Plateau, soon gathered in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and west of the Qinghai Lake and learned from each other advanced sciences and technologies, later spread out to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. The Yan Di’s offspring spread out to the west of the Taklamakan Desert; The Huang Di’s offspring spread out to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas; The Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s offspring spread out to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, where the Di Jun’s offspring lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s territories, which were near the sea or in the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records.

Archaeological discoveries prove Dong Yi Culture, which was built by the Shao Hao People in the Shandong Peninsula, was the most advanced Neolithic Chinese culture, greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. The Nü He People (called Mother of Yue (moon) in Shanhaijing), who lived in the Jiaodong (eastern Shandong) Peninsula, was one group of the Shao Hao People, had worried about the sea level rising and had sent the Xi He and Chang Xi People to the west of the Shandong Peninsula to expand the scope of their territories. The Nü He (including Xi He and Chang Xi) were the main founders of Dong Yi Culture and held the most advanced science and technologies during the Neolithic Age. They built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures, the earliest Chinese Maritime Culture. They were also the founders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy and Calendar.

It is believed that the name of “Hua Xia” came from the earliest Chinese nations - Hua and Xia, which were the roots of Chinese civilization. The Hua Nation was built by the Hua (Nü He) People as early as Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE) in the eastern Shandong Peninsula and the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE) was built by the Great Yu, an offspring of the Di Jun People, about 4500 years BP in the area between today’s Tongguan and Erlitou along the Yellow River, where early Longshan Dong Yi Culture had turned these Di Qiang Culture regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 Certainly, the Hua and Xia People were the main sources of ancient Chinese in the Yellow and Changjiang River valleys. Archeologists have found Chinese character Hua in ancient Shang Oracle bone scripts referred to a kind of sacrifice to Shang’s ancestors, suggesting the Shang’s emperors regarded the Hua People as their ancestors. However, due to the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BCE) falsely fabricating that Yan Di and Huang Di were common ancestors of all ancient Chinese people, including the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao, many ancient Chinese historical books recorded these falses. Meanwhile, the descendants of Yan Di and Huang Di, who lived in the northern and northwestern Asia, kept invading the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, many Chinese people claimed that they were the descendants of Yan Huang.

 

Keywords: Shanhaijing; Neolithic China, Di Jun, the Great Yu, Erlitou, Ancient Chinese Civilization

 

Introduction

Abstract:                                                                        

Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) records many ancient groups of people in Neolithic China. The five biggest were: Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors. These groups first lived in the Pamirs Plateau, soon gathered in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and west of the Qinghai Lake and learned from each other advanced sciences and technologies, later spread out to other places of China and built their unique ancient cultures during the Neolithic Age. The Yan Di’s offspring spread out to the west of the Taklamakan Desert; The Huang Di’s offspring spread out to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas; The Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s offspring spread out to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, where the Di Jun’s offspring lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s territories, which were near the sea or in the Shandong Peninsula. Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed the authenticity of Shanhaijing’s records.

Archaeological discoveries prove Dong Yi Culture, which was built by the Shao Hao People in the Shandong Peninsula, was the most advanced Neolithic Chinese culture, greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. The Nü He People (called Mother of Yue (moon) in Shanhaijing), who lived in the Jiaodong (eastern Shandong) Peninsula, was one group of the Shao Hao People, had worried about the sea level rising and had sent the Xi He and Chang Xi People to the west of the Shandong Peninsula to expand the scope of their territories. The Nü He (including Xi He and Chang Xi) were the main founders of Dong Yi Culture and held the most advanced science and technologies during the Neolithic Age. They built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures, the earliest Chinese Maritime Culture. They were also the founders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy and Calendar.

It is believed that the name of “Hua Xia” came from the earliest Chinese nations - Hua and Xia, which were the roots of Chinese civilization. The Hua Nation was built by the Hua (Nü He) People as early as Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE) in the eastern Shandong Peninsula and the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE) was built by the Great Yu, an offspring of the Di Jun People, about 4500 years BP in the area between today’s Tongguan and Erlitou along the Yellow River, where early Longshan Dong Yi Culture had turned these Di Qiang Culture regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 Certainly, the Hua and Xia People were the main sources of ancient Chinese in the Yellow and Changjiang River valleys. Archeologists have found Chinese character Hua in ancient Shang Oracle bone scripts referred to a kind of sacrifice to Shang’s ancestors, suggesting the Shang’s emperors regarded the Hua People as their ancestors. However, due to the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BCE) falsely fabricating that Yan Di and Huang Di were common ancestors of all ancient Chinese people, including the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao, many ancient Chinese historical books recorded these falses. Meanwhile, the descendants of Yan Di and Huang Di, who lived in the northern and northwestern Asia, kept invading the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, many Chinese people claimed that they were the descendants of Yan Huang.

 

Ancient Chinese Civilizations

Archaeologists and historians commonly agree that Neolithic China had two main ancient cultural systems: the Yellow River Valley and Changjiang River Valley Cultural Systems. Starting from the lower reaches areas of the Yellow and Changjiang rivers, these cultures spread to surrounding areas.

The Yellow River Valley Cultural System, which included Di Qiang and Dong Yi cultures, was established on millet cultivation in the early and middle stages of the Neolithic Age and divided from wheat cultivation in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern Henan Province and millet cultivation in other areas, during the period of Longshan Culture (about 3200-1900BCE).

Most small regional cultures of ancient China had faded by the end of Neolithic Age, including the Changjiang River Valley Cultural System. However, the Yellow River Valley Culture became the mainstay of ancient Chinese civilization and developed to a much higher level.

 9143212068?profile=original 

Di Qiang Culture

Di Qiang Neolithic Culture contained seven phases:

Laoguantai Culture (about 6000-5000BCE) existed in the Weihe River Valley, or Guanzhong Plain, in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Laoguantai people lived predominantly by primitive agriculture, mainly planting millet.

Qin’an Dadiwan First Culture (about 6200-3000BCE) included pre-Yangshao Culture, Yangshao Culture and Changshan Under-layer Culture. Dating from at least 6000BCE, Qin’an First Culture is the earliest Neolithic culture so far discovered in archaeological digs in the northwestern China. In a site of Dadiwan First Culture in Tianshui of Gansu in the west of the Guanzhong Plain, from around 6200BCE, archaeologists found the earliest cultivated millet.

Yangshao Culture (about 5000-3000BCE), also called Painted-Pottery Culture, existed in the middle reach of the Yellow River. Centered in Huashan, it reached east to eastern Henan Province, west to Gansu and Qinghai provinces, north to the Hetao area, the Great Band of Yellow River and the Great Wall near Inner Mongolia, and south to the Jianghan Plain. Its core areas were Guanzhong and northern Shaanxi Province. Like Laoguantai Culture, it was based predominantly on primitive agriculture, mainly the planting of millet.

Cishan-peiligang Culture (about 6200-4600BCE) existed in modern-day Henan Province and southern Hebei Province. Yangshao Culture later developed from this culture. The people subsisted on agriculture and livestock husbandry, planting millet and raising pigs.

Majiayao Culture (about 3000-2000BCE) was distributed throughout central and southern Gansu Province, centered in the Loess Plateau of western Gansu Province and spreading east to the upper reaches of the Weihe River, west to the Hexi (Gansu) Corridor and northeastern Qinghai Province, north to the southern Ningxia autonomous region and south Sichuan Province. 

From Majiayao Culture came the earliest Chinese bronzes and early writing characters, which evolved from Yangshao Culture’s written language. Maijayao people planted millet and raised pigs, dogs and goats.

Qijia Culture (about 2000-1000BCE) is also known as Early Bronze Culture. Its inhabitation areas were essentially coincident with Majiayao Culture. It had roots not only in Majiayao Culture, but also influences from cultures in the east of Longshan and the central Shaanxi Plain. Qijia Culture exhibited advanced pottery making. Copper-smelting had also appeared and Qijia people made small red bronzewares, such as knives, awls, mirrors and finger rings. The economy was based on planting millet and raising pigs, dogs, goats, cows and horses. Qijia Culture had a patriarchal clan society featuring monogamous families and polygamy. Class polarization had emerged.

Siwa Culture (about 1400-700BCE) existed mainly in the east of Lanzhou in Gansu Province and the Qianshui River and Jingshui River valleys in Shaanxi Province. Siwa settlements were of significant size and held a mixture of citizens and slaves. The Siwa people produced pottery with distinctive saddle-shaped mouths and bronzeware including dagger-axes, spears, arrowheads, knives and bells.

 

Dong Yi Culture

Dong Yi Culture was the most advanced culture in Neolithic China and built by the Neolithic Shao Hao People, who lived in the Shandong Peninsula. First located in the Shandong Peninsula, its influence later spread to the lower reaches of the Yellow and Huai rivers. Dawenkou Dong Yi Culture spread out to the lower reach of the Changjiang River and even the southeastern China. Dong Yi Culture had greatly impacted Di Qiang Culture since the earliest time. Longshan Dong Yi Culture spread out to the inhabitation areas of Cishan-peiligang and Yangshao Di Qiang cultures and turned these regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 

Dong Yi Neolithic Culture contained five evolutionary phases:

Houli Culture (about 6400-5700BCE) was a millet-growing culture in the Shandong Peninsula during the Neolithic Age. The original site at Houli in the Linzi District of Shandong, was excavated from 1989 to 1990.

Beixin Culture (about 5300-4100BCE) was a millet-growing Neolithic culture in the Shandong Peninsula, existing in the southern and northern Taishan and Yimengshan Mountains in the west of the Jiaolai River, including today’s Yanzhou, Qufu, Tai’an, Pingyin, Changqing, Jinan, Zhangqiu, Zouping, Wenshang, Zhangdian, Qingzhou, Juxian, Linshu, Lanlin and Tengzhou. It also spread out to today’s Xuzhou and Lianyungang. The original site at Beixin, in Tengzhou of Shandong Province, was excavated from 1978 to 1979.

Dawenkou Culture (about 4100-2600BCE) existed primarily in the Shandong Peninsula, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu provinces. The typical site at Dawenkou, located in Tai’an of Shandong Province, was excavated in 1959, 1974 and 1978. As with Beixin and Houli cultures, the main food was millet.

Yueshi Culture (about 2000-1600BCE) appeared in the same areas as Longshan Culture. The original site at Yueshi, in Pingdu of Shandong Province, was excavated in 1959.

Longshan Culture (about 3200-1900BCE) was centered on the central and lower Yellow River, including Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi provinces, during the late Neolithic period. Longshan Culture was named after the town of Longshan in Jinan, Shandong Province, where the first site containing distinctive cultural artifacts was found in 1928 and excavated from 1930 to 1931.

Wheat was widely cultivated in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern Henan during Longshan Culture. An implied code of etiquette in Longshan Culture shows social stratification and formation of the nation.

Longshan artifacts reveal a high level of technical skill in pottery making, including the use of pottery wheels. Longshan Culture is noted for its highly polished egg-shell pottery. This type of thin-walled and polished black pottery has also been discovered in the Yangtze River Valley and as far away as today’s southeastern coast of China. It is a clear indication of how Neolithic agricultural sub-groups of the greater Longshan Culture spread out across the ancient boundaries of China.

The Neolithic population in China reached its peak during the time of Longshan Culture. Towards the end of the Longshan cultural period, the population decreased sharply; this was matched by the disappearance of high-quality black pottery from ritual burials.

Archaeologists and historians agree that so-called Longshan Culture is actually made up of different cultures from multiple sources. Longshan Culture is now identified as four different cultures according to inhabitation areas and appearance: Shandong Longshan Culture, Miaodigou Second Culture, Henan Longshan Culture and Shaanxi Longshan Culture. Only the Shandong Longshan Culture came purely from Yueshi (Dong Yi) Culture; the three other Longshan cultures were rooted in Di Qiang Culture, but deeply influenced by Dong Yi Culture, which had also influenced Di Qiang Culture earlier in the Neolithic age.

Shandong Longshan Culture (also called representative Longshan Culture, about 2500-2000BCE), was named after the town of Longshan in Jinan, Shandong Province, where the first archaeological site was found in 1928 and excavated from 1930 to 1931.

Miaodigou Second Culture (about 2900-2800BCE) was mainly distributed throughout western Henan Province and came from Yangshao Culture.

Henan Longshan Culture (about 2600-2000BCE) was mainly distributed in western, northern and eastern Henan Province and came from Miaodigou Second Culture.

Shaanxi Longshan Culture (about 2300-2000BCE) was mainly distributed in the Jinghe and Weihe River Valley in Shaanxi Province.

 

Dong Yi Culture in the Eastern Shandong (or Jiaodong) Peninsula (in the East of the Jiaolai River)

Many archaeological discoveries in the eastern Shandong (or Jiaodong) Peninsula suggest Dong Yi Culture began in the eastern Shandong as early as the western Shandong. While most archaeologists and scientists regard Chinese Neolithic culture in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern China as a big system called Dong Yi Culture, Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the eastern and western Shandong Peninsula had major differences from each other. An article from Yantai Museum, Archaeological Discoveries of the Neolithic Age in the Shandong Peninsula, compares aspects of the Neolithic culture in the eastern Shandong with the co-existing Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the western Shandong. [2] Many scholars thought the Neolithic culture in the eastern Shandong had its own special features and became an independent system based on its own resources.

Archaeologists agree that Baishi Culture (about 7,000 years BP), which was named after the village of Baishi of Yantai, whose altitude is 23 meters today and where the first site containing distinctive cultural artifacts was found in 2006, was a kind of coastal culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula and had influences to the Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula and Japanese archipelago. Baishi Culture was more developed than Banpo Culture (about 6800-6300 years BP) of Xi’an, which belonged to Yangshao Di Qiang Culture (about 5000-3000BCE). Baishi coastal culture and Beixin (about 5300-4100BCE), an inland culture in the western Shandong, were in the same period, had some similarities, but had major differences, suggesting that Baishi Culture had its own resources - the advanced earliest Neolithic coastal and maritime cultures along the coastline in the Jiaodong Peninsula. However, most sites of the earliest coastal and maritime cultures were drowned by sea water during the sea level rising, but Baishi site was the rare survivor. Baishi Coastal Culture proves that the Jiaodong Peninsula was the important birthplace of Chinese Neolithic coastal and maritime cultures, which had influences to the Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula, Japanese archipelago and the Kamchatka Peninsula, Aleutian Islands and Americas.

During the time of late Dawenkou and Longshan cultures, Shandong and Eastern China formed a large area of Dong Yi influence; however, Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula came from the Jiaodong People, while Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the western Shandong came from the Neolithic Shandong people who developed inland cultures. After Dawenkou-Longshan Culture spread out from today’s Shandong to the west, south and north to other people’s territories, it also had roots in other cultures.

There were many archaeological sites, which were in the periods of Dawenkou, Yueshi and Longshan Cultures in the Jiaodong Peninsula, including Maojiabu, Beigemen and Shiyuan in Laixi, Yujiadian in Laiyang, Simatai in Haiyang, Yangjiajuan and Shangtao in Qixia, Zijingshan, Qiujiazhuang and Dazhongjia in Penglai, Hekou in Rongcheng, Xiaoguan in Rushan, Tangjia in Longkou, Beizhuang and Dakou in Changdao. Many of these sites, which were in the period of Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE), show the form of early nation and have discovered bronze wares and jade projects, suggesting there were ancient nations, which were earlier than the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE), in the Jiaodong Peninsula.

 

Dong Yi Culture was the Most Advanced Culture in Neolithic China.

1)    The writing system of Dong Yi Culture is one of the oldest in Neolithic China. It was an important source of the Shang oracle bone script. Some of the characters continued to be used in modern Chinese writing, such as: [3]

9143212265?profile=original

The Changle Bone Inscriptions, found in Changle, Qingzhou, Shouguang, Huantai, Linzi and Zouping in Shandong Province, belonged to Longshan Culture and are regarded as recording characters used 1,000 years earlier than Shang oracle bone script. [4]

2)    The Shao Hao People were the inventors of arrows in China. Zuozhuan has the similar records as Shuowen Jiezi: Shibu, saying, “In ancient times, Yi Mu started making the bow and arrow.” Liji: Sheyi says, “Hui made the bow and Yi Mu made the arrow.”

3)    The Shao Hao People had great skill in making pottery. Longshan Culture’s eggshell black pottery is regarded as one of the best ancient Chinese pottery.

4)    The Shao Hao People were the earliest users of copper and iron in Neolithic China.

5)    The earliest human brain operation in Neolithic China was believed to be conducted about 5,000 years ago in Guangrao of Shandong. In an archaeological site of Dawenkou Culture in Fujia, Guangrao of Shandong, an adult male skull was discovered. A hole on the skull with very neat edges was believed by scientists to have been created by a craniotomy. The man recovered from the surgery and had lived for a long time after it, before he died.

6)    The Shao Hao People firstly developed etiquette in Neolithic China. A code of etiquette in Longshan Culture, implied by artifacts, such as Ceremonial architecture, sacrificial vessels (Eggshell black pottery and Ritual Jade) and animal bones used to practice divination, shows social stratification and formation of the Shao Hao nation. Clearly, the earliest nation of Neolithic China was built in the Shandong Peninsula by the Shao Hao People.

 

The Changjiang River Valley Cultural System included:

  • The rice-growing cultures in the lower reach of the Changjiang River, such as:

Hemudu Culture (about 5000-3300BCE) in Yuyao of Zhejiang; Majiabang Culture (about 5000-4000BCE) in Jiaxing of Zhejiang and its successors, Songze Culture (about 3800-2900BCE) in Qingpu District of Shanghai, and Liangzhu Culture (about 5300-4200BCE) near Taihu of Zhejiang.

Their main cultivated food was rice. Many painted-potteries and also a large numbers of black potteries, discovered in these sites, suggests they had been influenced by Dawenkou Culture, which had spread out from the Shandong Peninsula to the eastern Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu.

2)   The rice-growing cultures in the middle reach of the Changjiang River, such as:

Pengtoushan Culture (about 8200-7800BCE) in Li County of Hunan, Daxi Culture (about 4400-3300BCE) in Wushan County of Chongqing and Qujialing (about 2550-2195BCE) in Jingshan County of Hubei.

Their main cultivated food was rice. Potteries discovered in Pengtoushan are only red brown painted-pottery and in Daxi are mainly red painted-pottery, but in Qujialing are mainly black and grey pottery. Patterns of painted-potteries in Daxi show clear connection with Miaodigou type of Yangshao Culture, suggesting that Yangshao Culture had deeply influenced Daxi Culture. Black potteries discovered in Qujialing have some similarities with Longshan Culture, suggesting that Longshan Culture had deeply influenced Qujialing Culture and its successors.

 

Other Cultural Systems included:

  1. The millet-growing cultures in the southeastern Da Xing’an Ling Mountains, include:

Xiaohexi Culture (about 6500BCE) in Aohan Banner; Xinglongwa Culture (about 6200-5400BCE) in Xinglongwa Village of Baoguotu Township in Aohan Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and its successors, Zhaojiagou Culture (about 5200-4400BCE) in Aohan Banner and Hongshan Culture (about 4000-3000BCE), which have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning. Their main cultivated food was millet.

Xinglongwa sites discover the earliest jade objects and a stone pile with dragon shape. Clay figurines, including figurines of pregnant women, are found throughout Hongshan sites. Hongshan burial artifacts include small copper rings and some of the earliest known examples of jade working, especially its jade pig dragons and embryo dragons. The dragon shape stone pile in Xinglongwa and jade dragons in Hongshan suggest the earliest dragon worship in ancient China.

  1. Dalongtan Culture (about 4500BCE)situated at Long’an County of Guangxi Province. Main cultivated food was rice.
  2. Dabenkeng Culture (about 4000-3000BCE) appeared in northern Taiwan and spread around the coast of the island, as well as the Penghu islands to the west. The rope figure potteries found in Dabenkeng are similar with Hemudu, Majiabang and Liangzhu. German archaeologist Robert Heine Geldern thought that Dabenkeng Culture also spread from Taiwan to Philippines and Polynesia.
  3. Sanxingdui Culture (about 12000-3000BCE)

The site of Sanxingdui is located in the city of Guanghan, 40km from Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Archaeologists have discovered remains of human activity in Sanxingdui about 12,000 years BP. The archaeological site of Sanxingdui contains remains of Bronze Age culture. The culture of the Sanxingdui site is thought to be divided into several phases. The Sanxingdui Culture (about 5,000-3,000 years BP), which corresponds to periods II-III of the site, was an obscure civilization in southern China. This culture was contemporaneous with the Shang Dynasty. However, they developed a different method of bronze-making from the Shang. The first phase, which corresponds to Period I of the site, belongs to the Baodun and in the final phase (period IV) the culture merged with the Ba and Chu cultures. The culture was a strong central theocracy with trade links that brought bronze from Yin and ivory from Southeast Asia.

The most obvious difference, between Sanxingdui and the Chinese Bronze Age cultures of Henan, is the presence at Sanxingdui of a figural bronze tradition – statues, heads, and faces - without precedent elsewhere in China. The Sanxingdui Culture ended, possibly either as a result of natural disasters (evidence of massive flooding has been found), or invasion by a different culture.

Archaeologists have discovered the archaeological sites of jinsha near Chengdu, 50 kilometers to Sanxingdui. The cultural relics of Jinsha Culture (about 1250-650BCE) share similarities with Sanxingdui, but some of Jinsha’s relics share similarities with Liangzhu Culture (5300-4200BCE) in the lower reach of the Changjiang River. Historians believe that the Jinsha People came from Sanxingdui, but had influenced by the Changjiang River Valley cultures.

 

Shanhaijing, the Classic of Mountains and Seas

Shanhaijing, or Classic of Mountains and Seas, is a classic Chinese text compiling early geography and myth. Some people believe it is the first geography and history book in China. It is largely a fabulous geographical and cultural account of pre-Qin China as well as a collection of Chinese mythology. The book is about 31,000 words long and is divided into eighteen sections. It describes, among other things, over 550 mountains and 300 rivers. Versions of the text have existed since the fourth century BCE, but the present form was not reached until the early Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE), a few centuries later.

It is also commonly accepted that Shanhaijing is a compilation of four original books:

1): Wu Zang Shan Jing, or Classic of the Five Hidden Mountains, written in the Great Yu’s Time (before 2200BCE);

2): Hai Wai Si Jing, or Four Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas, written during the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE);

3): Da Huang Si Jing, or Four Classic of the Great Wilderness, written during the Shang Dynasty (about 1600-1046BCE); and

4): Hai Nei Wu Jing, or Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas, written during the Zhou Dynasty (about 1046-256BCE).

The first known editor of Shanhaijing was Liu Xiang (77-6BCE) in the Han Dynasty, who was particularly well-known for his bibliographic work in cataloging and editing the extensive imperial library. [1] Later, Guo Pu (276-324CE), a scholar from the Jin Dynasty (also known as Sima Jin, 265-420CE), further annotated the work.

Where was the Great Wilderness recorded in Shanhaijing? According to Shanhaijing, the Great Wilderness was a large tract of savage land that was unfit for human habitation and was in the south of the Mobile Desert, today’s Taklamakan Desert. Clearly, it included today’s Tibetan Plateau, west areas of the Sichuan Basin and western Yungui Plateau. Shanhaijing also mentioned “east wilderness” and “other wilderness,” which were not today’s Tibetan Plateau, but other savage lands that were unfit for human habitation.

In Shanhaijing, the River refers to the Yellow River, which rises in the northern Bayankala Mountains, and the Jiang refers to the Changjiang River, which rises in the southern Bayankala Mountains which is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

The Mobile Desert in Shanhaijing refers to today’s Taklamakan Desert, the Asia’s biggest and world’s second biggest mobile desert, while the Rub Al Khal Desert in the Arabian Peninsula is the world’s biggest mobile desert.

The Chishui River in Shanhaijing was located in the east of the Mobile Desert, today’s Taklamakan Desert, and the west of the Northwest Sea. Shanhaijing uses “sea” to name saltwater lake and uses “deep pool” or “lake” to name freshwater lake. The Northwest Sea is today’s Qinghai Lake. The Qinghai Lake, also called Kokonor Lake, is a saltwater lake and used to be very big, but it had reduced to 1,000 kilometers in perimeter in the North Wei Dynasty (386-557CE) and kept reducing to 400 kilometers in perimeter in the Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) and 360 kilometers in perimeter today.

Many current scholars believe that Mount Buzhou is located in the eastern Pamirs Plateau, to the west of the Kunlun Mountains, but the specific location is not confirmed. 

 

Shanhaijing’s records of Neolithic Chinese People

Five Biggest Groups of Neolithic Chinese People had Lived in the Pamirs Plateau before They Moved to other Places of China.

9143212875?profile=original

The Classic of the Mountains: West records that Huang Di (Yellow King) lived in Mount Mi. The word “Huang (yellow)” suggests that Huang Di had a clear Mongoloid racial characteristic - yellow skin. It also records that Shao Hao was respected as Bai Di, “White King” or “White Ancestor-god,” by people in Mount Changliu. The word “Bai (white)” suggests that Shao Hao had a clear Caucasoid racial characteristic - white skin. The fact that the Chang Liu People regarded Shao Hao as their “White King” or “White Ancestor-god” indicates that the Chang Liu People were offspring of the Shao Hao. Mount Mi and Changliu were located in today’s Pamirs Plateau. Today, we shall comprehend that Huang Di refers to Huang Di’s group due to they living in the matriarchal clan society before 8,000 years BP, so did Yan Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East tells that Shu Shi, Zhuan Xu’s son, lived near Mount Buzhou, also The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West says, “The Yu People (Di Jun’s offspring) fought with the Gong Gong People (Zhuan Xu’s offspring) in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou,” suggesting Zhuan Xu’s group lived near Mount Buzhou in the Pamirs.

Shanhaijing does not give information about Di Jun living in the Pamirs Plateau, but records many groups of the Di Jun’s offspring living in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau, including King Shun’s group and the Yu People, who lived near Mount Buzhou. Clearly, Di Jun’s group used to live near Mount Buzhou, their offspring moved to the northern Tibetan Plateau and had a lot of wars with Zhuan Xu’s offspring.

Shanhaijing does not contain any detail of Yan Di living in the Pamirs Plateau, but clearly records that Ling Jia, Yan Di’s great-grandson, and Hu Ren, Yan Di’s great-great-grandson, lived in the west of the Taklamakan Desert. Drawing inferences about other cases from Huang Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun, we can say that Yan Di’s group used to live near the Pamirs Plateau, later their offspring moved to the west of the Taklamakan Desert.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West tells us, “In the west of the Qinghai Lake and a corner of the Tibetan Plateau, there was Mount Buzhou. There were ten spirits (gods). It said that Nüwa’s intestines scattered into ten spirits; they lived in millet fields and slept on roads.” “Ten spirits” came from Nüwa and under her jurisdiction, lived near Mount Buzhou. This reveals that all ancient Chinese people, including the five biggest groups, regarded Nüwa as the Goddess since their early time.

Due to all ancient groups of Chinese people used to live in the Pamirs Plateau, they might have moved to the south areas of the Himalayan Mountains to the Indo-Gangetic Plain and contributed as some origins of the Ancient Indus Valley civilizations (about 3000-1700BCE). In this article, I will not discuss this. I will only talk about those ancient groups of people who moved to China and built ancient Chinese civilizations.

 

The Second Gathering Areas of Neolithic Chinese People were the West of the Qinghai Lake, East of the Taklamakan Desert and North of the Tibetan Plateau.

Shanhaijing records that many groups of people lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake and north of the Tibetan Plateau, including offspring of the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun, Huang Di, Shao Hao, Yan Di and other peoples, such as the Xi (west) Zhou, Bei (north) Qi and Xuan Yuan People.

 

In the west of the Taklamakan Desert, there lived:

1)  People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Western Queen Mother lived in Mount Yu.

The Hu Ren (also called Di Ren) People were the ancestors of the Di Qiang People. Yan Di’s grandson was the father of Ling Jia; Ling Jia was the father of Hu Ren.

Yu Fu was the son of Zhuan Xu. Later the Yu Fu People turned their totem from snake (or animals) to fish and recovered from death.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Mountains: West -

The Western Queen Mother lived in Mount Yu; the Xuan Yuan People lived in the Xuan Yuan Mound; Huang Di lived in Mount Mi and Shao Hao lived in Mount Changliu. They were all in today’s Pamirs Plateau.

 

In the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, near Mount Buzhou, there lived:

 Shu Shi, son of Zhuan Xu, recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West. Also “The Yu People (Di Jun’s offspring) fought with the Gong Gong People (Zhuan Xu’s offspring) in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou.”

 

In the west of the Chishui River and east of the Taklamakan Desert, there lived:

1)  People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Bei (north) Di People were offspring of Shi Jun, who was grandson of Huang Di.

Tai Zi Chang Qin, who lived in Mount Yao and started making music, was the son of Zhu Rong. Zhuan Xu was the father of Lao Tong; Lao Tong was the father of Zhu Rong. Later, the Zhu Rong People moved to the east of the Chishui River and lived in the far south of the Di Mountain, recorded in The Classic of Regions Beyond the Sea: South.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North -

The Zhong Bian People were descendants of Zhong Bian, son of Zhuan Xu.

 

In the northern Tibetan Plateau, there lived:

1)  People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West -

The Xuan Yuan People moved from the Xuan Yuan Mound in the Pamirs Plateau to the northern Tibetan Plateau and their life-span was more than 800 years. (In ancient China, people often used eight, eighty or eight hundreds to mean a lot.)

The San Mian People were descendants of San Mian, son of Zhuan Xu.

The Ye People, who lived in the westernmost place of the Tibetan Plateau, were offspring of Li. Zhuan Xu was the father of Lao Tong; Lao Tong was the father of Chong and Li.

2)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North -

Shao Hao was the father of Wei, who had only one eye in the center of his face. The Wei People, with the surname of Wei, ate millet.

The Bei (north) Qi People (Jiang Zi-ya’s ancestors).

The Shu Chu People were descendants of Shu Chu, son of Zhuan Xu.

The Quan Rong People ate meat. Huang Di was the father of Miao Long; Miao Long was the father of Rong Wu; Rong Wu was the father of Nong Ming; Nong Ming was the father of Bai Quan, also called Quan Rong.

The Kua Fu People. Hou Tu was the father of Sin; Sin was the father of Kua Fu.

The Ba People (descended from Ba, Huang Di’s daughter).

3)   People recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South

King Shun’s group (Di Jun’s offspring) bathed in the Chong Yuan Lake.

 

In the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Chishui River, there lived the Xi (west) Zhou People (the Zhou Dynasty’s ancestors) with the surname of Ji, who ate millet, recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West.

Shu Jun started practicing cultivating grains. Di Jun was the father of Hou Ji and Tai Xi; Tai Xi was the father of Shu Jun.

Yu Hao was the father of Yan Er. Yan Er was the father of Wu Gu. Wu Gu was the father of Ji Wu Min. Both the Yan Er People, who ate millet, and the Ji Wu Min People, who ate fish, had the surname of Ren.

The Guan Tou People and Miao Min People had the surname of Li. Zhuan Xu was the ancestor of Guan Tou; The Guan Tou were the ancestors of Miao Min.

Later the Guan Tou People moved to the south of today’s Tibetan Plateau and fish in the sea (highly possible today’s sea near Dhaka of Bangladesh), recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South. Gun’s wife Shi Jing gave birth to Yan Rong; Yan Rong was the father of Guan Tou.

 

Shanhaijing does not give time sequence when recording locations of ancient groups of people, but gives us clues to find out the time sequence. These clues lead to a conclusion that Huang Di’s, Yan Di’s, Zhuan Xu’s, Di Jun’s and Shao Hao’s groups spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert, excepting Yan Di’s offspring, who spread out to the west and north of the Taklamakan Desert; Yu Fu’s group (offspring of Zhuan Xu) also moved to that area.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North tells that Wei, son of Shao Hao, lived in the north of the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting the Shao Hao People spread out from Mount Changliu in the Pamirs Plateau to the north of the Tibetan Plateau.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North says that Zhuan Xu and his nine wives were buried on Mount Fuyu, which was located between the Yellow River beyond the Qinghai Lake, suggesting that the Zhuan Xu People spread out from the eastern Pamirs to Mount Fuyu in today’s Aemye Ma-chhen Range.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South says King Shun lived in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau; also Di Jun (Di Ku), King Yao, King Shun and Shu Jun (grandson of Di Jun) were buried in the same place on the Yueshan Mountain. The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West says the Yu People fought with the Gong Gong People in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou; also Shu Jun’s group lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Chishui River. These records hint us that the Di Jun People spread out from the Pamirs to the northern Tibetan Plateau and begat many groups, such as the Yao, Shun and Yu People, also the Hou Ji, Tai Xi and Shu Jun People, who lived in the east of the Chishui River and west of the Qinghai Lake.

Huang Di’s group lived in Mount Mi in the Pamirs Plateau, while their offspring, the Miao Long, Rong Wu, Nong Ming, Bai Quan, or Quan (Xi) Rong, lived in the north of the Tibetan Plateau and the Shi Jun and Bei (north) Di lived in the west of the Chishui River.

The Xuan Yuan People spread out from the Xuan Yuan Mound in the Pamirs Plateau to the northern Tibetan Plateau.

 

Wars recorded in Shanhaijing.

Shanhaijing records many wars between different groups of people and these wars led to some agreements of their shifting routes.

One of these famous wars happened between the Chi You People (offspring of Zhuan Xu) and the Ying Long People (offspring of Huang Di).

Shanhaijing records Zhuan Xu had at least nine wives and many sons, more than Yan Di, Huang Di, Di Jun and Shao Hao. The followings are Zhuan Xu’s sons: Yu Fu, Shu Shi, Shu Chu, San Mian, Zhong Bian, Lao Tong, who was the father of Zhu Rong (who was Tai Zi Chang Qin’s father), Chong and Li (who was Ye’s father). The Zhuan Xu’s offspring also include Hou Tu, Sin’s father and Kua Fu’s grandfather, also Gun, who and his wife Shi Jing were the parents of Yan Rong, Guan Tou’s father and Miao Min’s grandfather. There were many groups of people who were offspring of Zhuan Xu’s group and they could outnumber others when they lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake.

The Chi You People had a sense of “safety in numbers” and launched an offensive to the Huang Di People, who had fewer groups. The Ying Long People took up the challenge and killed the Chi You People with the help of the Ba People (offspring of Huang Di’s daughter Ba). Later, the Kua Fu People (offspring of Zhuan Xu) moved to the east and became far away from other Zhuan Xu’s offspring, the Ying Long seized the chance and killed the Kua Fu People. After killing the Chi You and Kua Fu, the Ying Long were afraid of retribution from Zhuan Xu’s offspring, they escaped to the south and later moved to Mound Xiong Li Tu Qiu in the north of the eastern mountains.

Another famous war happened between the Ba People and Shu Jun People (offspring of Di Jun). After the Ying Long went to the south, the Ba People, who had come to help the Ying Long, lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake. They had conflicts with the Shu Jun People. After negotiation, the Ba People believed their Ancestor-god Huang Di asked them to move to the north of the Chishui River. These stories hint us that ancient groups of Chinese people made an agreement after these wars, that the Huang Di’s offspring would live in the north of the Chishui River and move to the northern areas, matching Shanhaijing’s records of their later inhabitation areas.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South records, “The Yu People launched an offensive against the Yun Yu People in the Yun Yu Mountain in the northern Tibetan Plateau.” The Classic of the Great Wilderness: North says, “The Yu People killed Xiang Yao, Gong Gong’s minister, in the north of the Kunlun Mountains.” Also The Classic of the Great Wilderness: West tells, “The Yu People fought with the Gong Gong People in the Guo Mountain near Mount Buzhou.” Clearly, the Di Jun’s and Zhuan Xu’s offspring fought a lot when they lived in the west of the Qinghai Lake. After these wars, they might have reached an agreement - Zhuan Xu’s offspring would go to the south, while Di Jun’s offspring would go to east. Such migration routes matched Shanhaijing’s records of their later inhabitation areas.

“Shao Hao nurturing the immature Zhuan Xu and the Zhuan Xu discarding their musical instruments - Qin and Se,” recorded in The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East, hint us that the Shao Hao People mastered the most advanced sciences and technologies and the Zhuan Xu People built close relationship with them in their early time, learned eagerly from them and discarded musical instruments, which were first invented by Tai Zi Chang Qin. Due to the Shao Hao mastering most advanced technologies, all other peoples would like to build close relationships with them, therefore, Shanhaijing has no records of Shao Hao’s offspring fighting with other peoples in their early time.

 

Neolithic Chinese People spread out from the Pamirs to the West of the Qinghai Lake and East of the Taklamakan Desert, then to other places.

The Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao People, and some other peoples, such as the Xuan Yuan, Xi (west) Zhou and Bei (north) Qi People, spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert, lived nomadic lifestyle side by side, hunting animal, collecting millet and learning from each other. Within five to six generations, they had mastered many new sciences and technologies, Tai Zi Chang Qin (Zhuan Xu’s great-grandson) was the progenitor of making music instruments and Shu Jun (Di Jun’s grandson) was the progenitor of practicing cultivating grains.

After some wars, ancient Chinese people made some agreements. The Huang Di People moved to the north of the Chishui River, Tianshan Mountains and further northern and northeastern areas. Most of the Zhuan Xu People lived near the Tibetan Plateau and later some of them moved to the south, such as the Zhu Rong People, reached the Sichuan Basin, such as the Yu Fu People, and the Bay of Bengal, such as the Guan Tou People. The Shao Hao and Di Jun People moved to the east to the Weihe River Valley.

Of course, there were also possibly very few groups from the Di Jun, Zhuan Xu and Shao Hao going to the north, or going to the south; due to the fact that they were not the majority, we would not discuss them.

 

The Third Gathering Area of Neolithic Chinese People was the Weihe River Valley.

The Shao Hao and Di Jun People spread out to the Weihe River Valley.

The Zhuan Xu People, who lived in the Aemye Ma-chhen Range, were very near the Weihe River Valley and had the ability to move to the Weihe Plain. However, due to the fact that the Zhuan Xu People had many wars with the Di Jun, it is highly possible that the Di Jun People did not allow the Zhuan Xu People to enter the Weihe Plain. This matches Shanhaijing having no records of the Zhuan Xu People living in the central and eastern China.

To be continued to Part IIhttps://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/hua-xia-yan-huang2

Other Scholarly Papers Presented and Published by Soleilmavis.

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/scholarly-papers-presente...

Read more…

Soleilmavis presented this paper at E-Leader Conference held by CASA (Chinese American Scholars Association) and Masaryk University, BRNO, Czech Republic, in Jun 2019.

From (Part I) Originally, the Descendants of Hua Xia were not the Descendants of Yan Huang

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/hua-xia-yan-huang1

Archaeological Findings Match Shanhaijing’s Records of Ancient Groups of Chinese People.

Current humans share a common group of ancestors who were late Modern Humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) and who became the only surviving human species on Earth about 20,000 years ago. This latest human species, Homo sapiens sapiens, our ancestors, soon entered the Neolithic, a period in the development of human technology. The Neolithic period began in some parts of the Middle East about 18,000 years BP according to the ASPRO chronology and later in other parts of the world and ended between 4500BCE and 2000BCE.

About 20,000-19,000 years BP, in the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) period, vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe and Asia; many high mountains were covered by snow and ice. The world’s sea level was about 130 meters lower than today, due to the large amount of sea water that had evaporated and been deposited as snow and ice, mostly in the Laurentide ice sheet. At the later stage of the Pleistocene since about 18,000 years BP, temperature rose quickly and snow and ice started melting, including the Pamirs Plateau and Tibetan Plateau. [2]

Shanhaijing records Huang Di’s, Yan Di’s, Di Jun’s, Zhuan Xu’s and Shao Hao’s group lived in the Pamirs Plateau and their offspring moved to the east and spread out to all over China. Many recent Chinese Neolithic archaeological discoveries have included cultivated rice from as early as 14,000 years BP. These include sites in Dao County of Hunan Province (about 12,000BCE), Wannian County of Jiangxi Province (about 10,000 years BP) and Yingde of Guangdong Province (about 9000-6000BCE). Archaeologists have found a lot of remains of human activity 10,000 years ago in China, including Bianbian cave of Yiyuan in Shandong (about 9,000-12,000 years BP), Nazhuantou of Xushui in Henan, Yuchanyan of Dao County in Hunan, Diaotonghuan in Jiangxi, Baozitou of Nanning in Guangxi, Ji County of Tianjin and Qinglong County of Guizhou. In 2013, Hou Guang-liang, the professor of the School of Life and Geography Science of Qinghai Normal University, and other archaeologists of the Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute of Qinghai discovered remains of human activity about 11,200-10,000 years BP in Xiadawu of Maqin County, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province.

Shanhaijing’s records and archaeological findings bring us a scientific conclusion. The Pamirs Plateau was very cold and unfit for human habitation before 16,000 years BP. As temperature rising, people, who came from the Middle East, began to enter the Pamirs Plateau around 16,000-15,000 years BP, soon they found that in the east of the Pamirs, there were vast fertile lands, they moved quickly from the Pamirs to the east and spread out to many places of China during about 16,000-14,000 years BP. The early ancient Chinese people lived nomadic lifestyle, moved frequently and were not able to leave much archaeological remains to us. However, when the Neolithic Chinese people started cultivating grains, they were able to settle down and left many archaeological remains.

Archaeologists agree that ancient Chinese people were in the matriarchal clan society before about 8,000 years BP, when human knew only mother, not father and accepted only endogamy. It made it possible to ascertain the patriarchal clan of a group of people instead of an individual.

In prehistoric China, people usually named their groups after certain ancestors. Shanhaijing records many ancient groups of people and names a group of people with “Guo,” its literal meaning is nation or tribe. Shanhaijing does not identify the patriarchal ancestors of most ancient groups of people due to the long-time of the matriarchal clan society. However, Shanhaijing clearly identifies some individual’s patriarchal clans and around 150 groups of Neolithic people, which came from the five biggest groups of people: Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. These were not only the names of groups, but also the names of individuals, who were regarded by many groups as common male ancestors.

When the patriarchal clan society began in about 8,000 years BP, almost all ancient Chinese people still accepted only endogamy, those people, who believed that they were offspring of Huang Di’s group, tried to compile their patriarchal clans and claimed Huang Di was their common male ancestor. However, they were not able to ascertain which particular individual was Huang Di, due to Huang Di living in the matriarchal clan society - his group had female as a leader and he, a male, was not able to be a leader. Clearly, Huang Di was only a figure from compilation, not a real person. Or, Huang (Yellow) Di (King or Queen) originally was a female leader but people in the patriarchal clan society claimed that he was a male leader. Today, we shall comprehend that Huang Di refers to Huang Di’s group. The Huang Di People refer to all people who were offspring of Huang Di’s group and regarded Huang Di as their common male ancestor. So did Yan Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun.

While most geographical positions written in Shanhaijing cannot be verified, Shanhaijing still provides some hints to let us know the homelands of ancient groups of people. 

9143217090?profile=original

9143339492?profile=original9143339859?profile=original 

The Falsified Stories in the Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas of Shanhaijing

In the earliest records of Shanhaijing, Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao were regarded as ancestors of different groups of Neolithic Chinese people. Today, we shall comprehend that Huang Di refers to Huang Di’s group. The Huang Di People refer to all people who were offspring of Huang Di’s group and regarded Huang Di as their common male ancestor. So did Yan Di, Shao Hao, Zhuan Xu and Di Jun.

Many historians agree that the ancient Kings Yan Di and Huang Di did not descend from Han Chinese stock. Scholars of the Zhou Dynasty (about 1046-256BCE) fabricated stories of Yan Di and Huang Di’s lineage for political purposes.

Historians commonly agree that the rulers of the Zhou Dynasty united China with help from the Huang Di People (especially, Bei (north) Di and Xi (west) Rong People) and the Yan Di People (especially, Di Qiang People). To encourage the assimilation of all Chinese people, the Zhou fabricated several new stories, which could not be found in the previous three books of Shanhaijing, and added these stories into one more part to Shanhaijing - Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas, declaring King Yan Di and Huang Di to be the common ancestors of all Chinese people and falsely claiming that Di Jun, Zhuan Xu and Shao Hao were descendants of Huang Di and Yan Di.

The Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas records:

Huang Di was the father of Luo Ming; Luo Ming was the father of Bai Ma (white horse); Bai Ma was also known as Gun. Gun was the father of the Great Yu. Huang Di ordered Zhu Rong to kill Gun in Yu Jiao. After Gun had been killed, the Great Yu came out from his belly.

Yan Di and his wife Ting Yao, who came from the Chi Shui People, were the parents of Yan Ju; Yan Ju begat Jie Bing; Jie Bing begat Xi Qi; Xi Qi begat Zhu Rong; Zhu Rong begat Gong Gong, who lived along the Changjiang River; Gong Gong begat Shu Qi; Shu Qi begat Fang Dian. Gong Gong begat Hou Tu; Hou Tu begat Ye Ming; Ye Ming begat Shui; Shui was the ancestor of twelve groups of people.

Yan Di’s grandson Bo Ling and his wife Yuan Fu were the parents of Gu, Yan and Shu.

Huang Di and his wife Lei Zu were the parents of Chang Yi; Chang Yi was the father of Han Liu in Ruo Shui River; Han Liu and his wife A Nü were the parents of Zhuan Xu.

The Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas gave Di Jun the following offspring.

Yu Hao was the father of Yin Liang; Yin Liang was the father of Fan Yu, who made the first boat; Fan Yu was the father of Xi Zhong; Xi Zhong was the father of Ji Guang, who made the first cart with wood.

Shao Gao (Shao Hao) was the father of Ban, who made the first bow and arrow.

Yan Long first made the Qin and Se, ancient music instruments.

San Shen was the father of Yi Jun, who first made Qiao Chui (tools, such as ploughs and plowshares); since then, people have made handicrafts.

Hou Ji first cultivated grains. His grandson, Shu Jun, first cultivated grains with the help of cattle.

Due to the long period over which China was ruled by the Zhou Dynasty from 1046BCE to 256BCE, the falsified stories created by this dynasty had deeply influenced later historians and scholars, including the Book of Documents (ShangShu) (author unknown, written during the the Zhou Dynasty), Bamboo Annals (written during the Zhou Dynasty), GuoYu (author Zuo Qiu-ming, records the history from 990BCE to 453BCE), ChunQiu (author Confucius, records the history of the State of Lu from 722BCE to 481BCE) and even Sima Qian (145-87BCE), author of The Records of the Grand Historian, or Shiji. Sima Qian, who had read all famous historical records and integrated views from various books, wrote Wudi Benji, or Annals of the Five Kings, as the first chapter of his book. Sima Qian informs us, “The written records about Huang Di provided by many historians and scholars were not precise. Even a learned man cannot make it clear. I carefully chose records with rigorous diction from historical books to compile the Wudi Beiji.” Sima Qian also could not completely certain which record was accurate. However, today, the historical truth has unfolded in front of us with the aid of modern advanced archaeology.

 

The Movement of the Yan Di and Huang Di People During the Neolithic Age.

 The Yan Di People spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the west and north of the Taklamakan Desert, later spread out to the north and northwest of the Tianshan Mountains.

Huang Di’s group first lived in Mount Mi in the Pamirs Plateau, then moved to the west of the Qinghai Lake and east of the Taklamakan Desert.

Shanhaijing records many famous wars between the Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Huang Di People, such as the Ying Long People (offspring of Huang Di) killed the Chi You People (offspring of Zhuan Xu) and Kua Fu People (offspring of Zhuan Xu); the Yu People (offspring of Di Jun) destroyed the Gong Gong and Xiang Yao (offspring of Zhuan Xu); the Ba People (offspring of Huang Di) fought with the Shu Jun People (offspring of Di Jun). After these wars, ancient groups of Chinese people made an agreement that the Huang Di People would live in the north of the Chishui River, later, they spread to the north of the Yellow River and north of the Yinshan Mountains. Their migration routes were:

1)   To the north, to the Kazakhskiy Melkosopochnik and its surrounding areas; then to the further north to the Baraba steppe and the Ishim Grassland, also to the Yablonovyy Khrebet Mountains and the further northern areas.

Huang Di’s offspring, who lived in these areas, were nomadic people and did not develop agriculture during the Neolithic Age.

2)   To the Altun Mountains, Qilian Mountains, Helan Mountains and Yinshan Mountains.

The Huang Di People spread to the north of the middle reach of the Yellow River and north of the Yinshan Mountains. Huang Di’s offspring, who lived in these areas, were nomadic people and did not develop agriculture during the Neolithic Age. The Mount Helan Rock Paintings of Ningxia represent ancient hunting cultures from different northern nomadic tribes. Most of these tribes were Huang Di’s offspring; however, some nomadic groups from the Di Jun, Zhuan Xu, or other peoples also had the ability to reach this area.

3)   First to the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, then to the Altay Shan Mountains and its surrounding areas, and from there to the northeast, to the Mongolian Plateau, then to the east to the Da Xing’an Ling Mountains, the Northeast Plain and the Changbai Mountains, until they reached the Bohai Sea and Sea of Japan. They also went to the Korean Peninsula, which was named Liu Bo Mountains in Shanhaijing. There were some Huang Di’s offspring spread out to the Japanese archipelago.

Huang Di’s offspring, who lived in these areas, were nomadic people and did not develop agriculture during the Neolithic Age. However, some Huang Di’s groups, who moved to the east of the Da Xing’an Ling Mountains, turned from nomadic to agricultural lifestyles.

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: East tells the Yu Hu People and Yu Jing People spread to the northeast and reached the Liu Bo Mountain (today’s Korea Peninsula) and the Eastern Sea (today’s Sea of Japan). The Yu Hu and Yu Jing were offspring of Yu Hao (offspring of Huang Di), who used to live in the west of the Qinghai Lake and might have learned the early farming technologies from the Di Jun People.

Archaeologists have discovered that Xiaohexi Culture (about 6500BCE), Xinglongwa Culture (6200-5400BCE) and Zhaojiagou Culture (5200-4400BCE) in Aohan Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the southeast of the Da Xing’an Ling Mountains, and Hongshan Culture (4000-3000BCE), which have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning, had built farming civilizations, mainly cultivated millet and had reared livestock. The Yu Hu and Yu Jing People were origins of direct founders of the Xiaohexi, Xinglongwa, Zhaojiagou and Hongshan cultures. These cultures did not contribute to the development of the Yellow River Valley Cultural System.

 

The Movement of the Shao Hao and Di Jun Peoples During the Neolithic Age.

The Shao Hao and Di Jun People spread out from the Pamirs Plateau to the east of the Taklamakan Desert and west of the Qinghai Lake, later spread out to the Weihe River Valley, then to the lower reach of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula, living a nomadic lifestyle, collecting millet and hunting animal during about 16,000-14,000 years BP. The Di Jun People, who followed the Shao Hao’s migration route to the east, lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s inhabitation areas. The migration route of Shao Hao’s groups was exactly the later Old Silk Road, which was built during the Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE).

Shanhaijing records many wars between different groups of people but no wars between the Shao Hao and other peoples in their early time; instead, the early Zhuan Xu People learning eagerly from the Shao Hao and having no time for their musical instruments, reveals the Shao Hao had mastered most advanced sciences and technologies, all other groups of Neolithic Chinese people would like to build close relationships with them. Thereby the Shao Hao had greatly influenced other groups of Neolithic Chinese people with their advanced technologies since their early time.

Around 11,000 years BP, Neolithic Chinese people went from gathering to cultivating millet. The Shao Hao and Di Jun People became origins of direct founders of the Weihe River Valley Culture, including Laoguantai Culture (6000-5000BCE), Qin’an Dadiwan First Culture (6200-3000BCE) in Qinan County of Gansu and it successor, Yangshao Culture (5000-3000BCE), also called Painted-Pottery Culture, centered in Huashan and existed in the middle reach of the Yellow River, and the Cishan-peiligang Culture (6200-4600BCE), another origin of Yangshao Culture, in modern-day Henan and southern Hebei. These cultures were named “Di Qiang Culture” by modern historians. The Shao Hao People, who mastered the most advanced sciences and technologies during the Neolithic Age, were the leading developers of Di Qiang Culture.

The Shao Hao People, who moved to the Shandong Peninsula, branched out to many groups, living a nomadic lifestyle during about 16,000-14,000 years BP. About 11,000 years BP, they went from gathering to cultivating millet and soon developed the most advanced Neolithic cultures in the Shandong Peninsula, including Houli Culture (about 6400-5700BCE), a millet-growing culture in Linzi, and its successor - Beixin Culture (about 5300-4100BCE), a millet-growing culture in Tengzhou. The potteries discovered in Houli Culture are main painted-potteries, but also have some black potteries, which used more advanced technologies. Dawenkou Culture (about 4100-2600BCE) existed primarily in the Shandong Peninsula, but also appeared in eastern Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu and affected deeply the cultures in the lower reach of the Changjiang River. It overlapped with the territory of Shao Hao People.

Houli, Beixin and Dawenkou cultures and their successor Longshan Culture were named “Dong Yi Culture” by modern archaeologists and historians, who also agree that Dong Yi Culture was the most advanced culture in Neolithic China. The Shao Hao People were sole founders of Dong Yi Culture. The technologies of making black potteries were developed only in the Shandong Peninsula and later spread out to other places of China. Longshan Dong Yi Culture (3200-1900BCE) spread out to the territories of the Cishan-peiligang and Yangshao Di Qiang cultures and turned these areas into outposts of Dong Yi Culture. Through this diffusion, Dong Yi Culture greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization.

The Shao Hao People also spread out from the Shandong Peninsula to other places of China along the coastlines, including the Changjiang River estuary, Taiwan and southeast Asia, even Philippines and Polynesia during about 16,000-14,000 years BP.

The Shao Hao People lived near the sea in the east of the Di Jun’s territories in the lower reach of the Changjiang River. The Shao Hao and Di Jun were origins of direct founders of the rice-growing cultures, including Hemudu (5000-3300BCE) in Yuyao of Zhejiang, Majiabang (5000-4000BCE) in Jiaxing of Zhejiang and its successors, Songze (3800-2900BCE) in Qingpu District of Shanghai, and Liangzhu (5300-4200BCE) near Taihu of Zhejiang. The Jade Statues in Lingjiatan Culture (3500-3300BCE) in Hanshan County of Anhui Province have big eyes with double eyelids, the obvious non- Mongoloid characteristics, suggesting the Shao Hao were direct founders of this culture. Many painted-potteries and a large numbers of black potteries discovered in the lower reach of the Changjiang River, prove the deep influence by Dawenkou Dong Yi Culture (4100-2600BCE).

 9143213482?profile=original

The Shao Hao People spread out along the coastline to the southeastern China, including Taiwan, where Dabenkeng (4000-3000BCE) Culture was developed, later spread out to the Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Polynesia and Australia. The Di Jun People had the ability to follow the Shao Hao’s migration routes, while the Zhuan Xu People also had the ability to reach the Southeast Asia and follow the Shao Hao’s migration routes.

Archaeologists confirm that rope figure potteries found in Dabenkeng were similar with Hemudu, Majiabang and Liangzhu cultures. German archaeologist Robert Heine Geldern thought that Dabenkeng Culture also spread from Taiwan to Philippines and Polynesia. Dawenkou Culture (4100-2600BCE), which greatly influenced cultures in the lower reach of the Changjiang River, also deeply influenced Dabenkeng and cultures in the southeastern Asia, Philippines and Polynesia.

The Shao Hao People, who spread out from the Shandong Peninsula to the north, Arctic Cycle and Americas along the coastline or through the sea by boat during about 16,000-5,000 years BP, did not leave many archaeological remains for us, due to their migration routes being drowned by sea water while the sea level rising.[10]

Archaeological discoveries match the Shao Hao’s inhabitation areas recorded in Shanhaijing, which also reveal that the sea level rising forced the Shao Hao to move to mountain areas. The biggest group of the Shao Hao’s offspring, called “Shao Hao People,” lived in the northern Taishan Mountains. The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South records the Bei People (Shao Hao’s offspring) fought with the Di Jun People for territory, lost the fight and moved to the Mei Yuan Lake. This story tells us that the Shao Hao People, who had moved to the south of the Changjiang River, moved to the west when the sea level rising, entered the territories of the Di Jun People and caused conflicts.

 

The Nü He People

The Shao Hao People, who moved to today’s Shandong Peninsula, branched out to many groups. One of these Shao Hao Groups was named Nü He. The early inhabitation areas of the Nü He People covered a large areas including today’s eastern Shandong Peninsula and its east areas, also spread out to the north to today’s Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula, Japanese archipelago, Kamchatka Peninsula, Aleutian Islands and Americas, and the south to Eastern and Southeastern China, including Taiwan, then to Southeastern Asia and Australia, until the sea level rising drowned most of their inhabitation areas. The Nü He People, who lived near the coastlines, turned from nomadic to coastal and maritime lifestyles, developed the earliest coastal and maritime cultures. Literally, “Nü” means female and “Nü He” means the He People having female as leader.  

About 6,000 years BP, the sea level was two to five meters higher than today’s present sea level and it dropped during 5,000 years BP. Archaeologists agree that the Baishi Culture (about 7,000 years BP), which was named after the Baishi site in Yantai was found in 2006, was a kind of coastal culture and had its own sources - the earliest Neolithic coastal and maritime cultures, which were built before 7,000 years BP by the Baishi’s ancestors along the coastline in the Jiaodong Peninsula and were drowned by sea water during the sea level rising. The earliest Neolithic coastal cultures of the Jiaodong Peninsula spread out from the Jiaodong Peninsula to the Liaodong Peninsula, Korea Peninsula and Japanese archipelago, also to be able to the Kamchatka Peninsula, Aleutian Islands and Americas. The Nü He People who lived near the East End of the Earth recorded in Shanhaijing, were ancestors the Baishi People. The Baishi Site, whose altitude is 23 meters today, proves that the Jiaodong Peninsula was the important birthplace of Neolithic Chinese Maritime Culture and the Nü He People were the funders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese Maritime Culture.

Worried about the sea level keeping rising that the whole Shandong Peninsula would be drowned by sea water, during about 7,500-7,000 years BP, the Nü He People ordered Xi He (a female leader) to lead some people, re-named them “Xi He People,” to move to the upper reach of the Ganshui River in the southwest of the Shao Hao People’s territory in the Taishan and Yimeng Shan Mountains, where they developed Beixin Culture (5300-4100BCE). Some Xi He women discarded their tradition of endogamy with the Shao Hao men and found the Di Jun men to be their husbands, moved to the lower reach of the Ganshui River and set up ten groups of people, named them Ri (sun), near the Weishan Lake. Through this way, the Nü He People expanded the scope of their territories.

The Nü He People also ordered Chang Xi (a female leader) to lead some people, re-named them “Chang Xi People,” to move to the western Kunlun Mountains. In order to get help from the Di Jun People in the long and rough route, the Chang Xi women had to found the Di Jun men to be their husbands. Through this way, the Nü He People would build an inhabitation base area near the Pamirs Plateau for the future. The Chang Xi People dwelled in the western Kunlun Mountains and became twelve groups of the Yue (moon) People. The Yue (moon) People regarded themselves as invariable (Chang) tributary groups to the Nü He People, who were their mothers, and often went back the eastern Shandong Peninsula to visit the Nü He People.

It is believed that the famous stories of “Hou (sovereign) Yi shooting the suns” and “Chang E (lady) going to the moon” came from the Xi He and Chang Xi People. The earliest records of these stories were written in the bamboo-slips book of the Qin Dynasty (221-206BCE), “Gui Zang,” discovered in the No. 15 Qin’s tomb in Wangjiatai of Jianglin, Hubei. Originally, the story of “Hou Yi shooting the suns” said the Hou Yi People abolished the other nine Sun (Ri) tribes, united them to one Sun (Ri) tribe, instead of shooting the nine suns in the sky; the story of “Chang E going to the moon” said the Chang E (Chang Xi) People went to the west to set up the twelve Moon (Yue) tribes, instead of flying to the moon in the sky. But later, mankind continued enriching the stories of Hou Yi and Chang E by adding in more fancies, finally Hou Yi’s story became a myth of Hou Yi shooting down nine suns and leaving only one in the sky; Chang E’s story became a myth of Chang E stealing secret prescription, which could make her alive forever, from the Western Queen Mother and then flying to the moon in the sky. Also, Hou Yi became Chang E’s husband in later’s fancies.

The ten Ri (sun) and twelve Yue (moon) coincide with the ten Heavenly Stems (Tian Gan) and the twelve Earthly Branches (Di Zhi) in the traditional Chinese Calendar, the Stems-and-Branches or the Chinese sexagenary cycle. It is a cycle of sixty terms for recording days or years. Each term in the sexagenary cycle consists of two characters, the first from a cycle of ten, known as the Heavenly Stems (Tian Gan) and the second from a cycle of twelve, known as the Earthly Branches (Di Zhi). It also includes twelve months in a year and twelve two-hour segments of a day. The ten Ri (sun) and twelve Yue (moon) coming from their mothers, the Nü He People, hints that the Nü He People were the inventors of the traditional Chinese Calendar.

 

Archaeological Discoveries Prove the Shao Hao and Nü He People Taking the Leading Role in Making the Yellow River Valley Culture, the Root of Chinese Civilization.

Shanhaijing’s records reveal that the Shao Hao People mastered the advanced technologies during the Neolithic Age. Archaeological discoveries prove Dong Yi Culture, which was built by the Shao Hao (including Nü He) People in the Shandong Peninsula, was one of the most advanced Neolithic cultures, greatly influenced ancient China and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. Meanwhile, the Shao Hao People took the leading role in developing the early Di Qiang Culture, including Weihe River Valley Culture and Cishan-peiligang Culture, early lower reach of Changjiang River Valley Culture and early cultures in Taiwan, South Asia, Malaysia, Philippines and Polynesia.

The Nü He People, who lived in the Jiaodong (eastern Shandong) Peninsula, were the founders of Baishi Culture (about 7,000 years BP), its resources - the earliest coastal and maritime cultures, and its successors - Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the Jiaodong Peninsula. Before 7,500-7,000 years BP, the Xi He People, who carried the Nü He’s advanced technologies, moved from the Jiaodong Peninsula to the southwestern Taishan and Yimengshan Mountains, turned from coastal and maritime to agricultural lifestyles, learned from both Houli inland culture, which was developed by the Shao Hao People in the Taishan Mountains, and the earliest Jiaodong’s coastal and maritime cultures, which were developed by the Nü He People, and developed the more advanced inland culture - Beixin Culture (5300-4100BCE), which deeply influenced other Shao Hao People and turned them into outposts of Beixin Culture. The Xi He People were the founders of Beixin Culture and its successors - Dawenkou-Longshan Culture in the western Shandong.

We can say that the Nü He People were the root of Baishi, Beixin and Dawenkou-Longshan Cultures in the Shandong Peninsula. After the Xi He People accepted exogamy with the Di Jun People and gave birth to ten groups of the Ri (sun) People, who lived near today’s four lakes of Weishan, Dawenkou-Longshan Culture spread out quickly from the Shandong Peninsula to the Di Jun People’s territories, which were in the west of the Shao Hao’s territories. By letting the Chang Xi and Xi He women find the Di Jun men to be their husbands, the Nü He People expanded their territories, spread their most advanced sciences and technologies to other Shao Hao People, the Di Jun People and even to the western places. This helps Longshan Dong Yi Culture (3200-1900BCE) spread out to the inhabitation areas of Cishan-peiligang and Yangshao Di Qiang cultures and turned these regions into outposts of Dong Yi Culture.

 

Dong Yi Culture was the Root of the Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin and Han Cultures.

The Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE) was the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles, such as Bamboo Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. Historians agree that an offspring of the Di Jun People, the Great Yu, who lived near today’s Tongguan recorded in Shanhaijing, founded the Xia. Many Chinese archaeologists generally identify Erlitou (1900-1500BCE), Yanshi of Henan Province, as the site of the Xia. The Xia covered an area of northern Henan, southern Hebei, southern Shanxi and western Shaanxi provinces, along the Yellow River, where was the inhabitation areas of early Cishan-peiligang (6200-4600BCE) and Yangshao (5000-3000BCE) Di Qiang cultures, but had been turned into outposts of Longshan Dong Yi Culture during 3200-1900BCE.

The Shang’s ancestors living in Qufu of Shandong suggests that they were offspring of the Xi He People, the founders of Beixin and Dawenkou-Longshan Cultures.

The Zhou People moved from the west of the Qinghai Lake to the Weihe Plain during Gugong Danfu’s time, about 1250-1150BCE, turned from nomadic to agricultural lifestyles, learned eagerly from the most advanced Dong Yi Culture and developed quickly into a state. Clearly, Dong Yi Culture was the root of the Zhou’s Culture. Zhou Gong-dan (about 1100BCE ago) made The Rites of Zhou by renovating the rites of Xia and Shang to record ceremonial rites, etiquette and regulations in the official and political system of the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BCE). The Rites of Zhou inherited and carried forward cultures of the Xia and Shang dynasties, thus we can say Dong Yi Culture was the root of the Zhou’s Culture. Confucius venerated Zhou Gong-dan as a pioneer of Confucianism.

The ancestors of the Qin’s leaders were the Shang’s peerages and lived in the Shandong Peninsula, suggesting they were offspring of either the Xi He or Shao Hao People, who surrendered to the Shang. The Shang emperor ordered the Qin’s ancestors to move from the Shandong Peninsula to the Weihe River Valley to resist the Zhou, Di and Rong Peoples. In 1046BCE, the war between the Zhou and Shang destroyed the Shang, the Qin’s ancestors became slaves of the Zhou Dynasty. Dong Yi Culture was the root of the Qin (221-206BCE), offspring of the Shao Hao People.

Dong Yi Culture was the root of The Hundred Schools of Thought, literally All Philosophers’ Hundred Schools, which were philosophers and schools that flourished in the Shandong Peninsula and eastern Henan area during an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China from 771BCE to 221BCE. Founders of most of The Hundred Schools of Thought were from the states of Lu, Qi, or Song, as well as other states located in today’s Shandong Province or near the Shandong Peninsula. Micius’, Confucius’ and Zhuang-zi’s ancestors were the Shang emperors’ offspring who lived in the State of Song.

Emperor Wu of Han (156-87BCE) emphasized Confucianism, after accepting suggestions from Dong Zhong-shu (179-104BCE), who was regarded as a great Confucian leader. During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken and synthesized, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain largely intact until the late nineteenth century. Dong Yi Culture and its successor, the Hundred Schools of Thought, were the roots of Han Culture, which emphasized Confucius but never banned other ancient philosophers, started during the Han Dynasty, was inherited and carried forward by the Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) and lasted in China for more than 2,000 years.

 

The Ancient Hua Nation was one of the Earliest Nation, earlier than the Xia Dynasty, in Neolithic China.

Hua Xia was the name of China before the Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE). Today Chinese still call China “Hua Xia” or “Zhong (central) Hua.” 

There are no historical records of the Hua and the Xia nations before the Zhou Dynasty. From the little surviving remains of the Shang oracle bone script and the Changle (Weifang) Bone Inscriptions, which were 1,000 years earlier than the Shang oracle bone script, we could not find written records of the Hua and Xia nations.

According to some legends, the Hua People were the earliest group who promoted picking plants as food and planting grains, while the Xia People were the earliest group who promoted cultivating grains; and the Hua planted grains earlier than the Xia. The legends tells that the nations of Hua and Xia were built by different groups of people. It is very logical that the name of “Hua Xia” came from the nations of Hua and Xia.

Archaeologists agree that Dong Yi Culture, which was developed by the Shao Hao (including Nü He) People first in the Shandong Peninsula and later spread out to other places of China, was the most advanced culture during the Neolithic Age and took the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. Dong Yi Culture began in the eastern Shandong as early as the western Shandong. Archaeologists have discovered some sites with an implied code of etiquette in Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE) in the Shandong Peninsula, showing social stratification and formation of the nation, suggesting the earliest nations of China were developed by the Shao Hao (including Nü He) People in the Shandong Peninsula, earlier than the Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE).

Archaeologists have discovered many bronze wares, which were made during about 1600-1046BCE, in the eastern Shandong Peninsula, suggesting there were ancient nations in the east of Jiaolai River, where was the settlement of the Nü He People.

In the west of Chengshantou, the easternmost place of the Shandong Peninsula, the Buye site of Buliu in Rongcheng have discovered some bronze wares which were made during the late Spring and Autumn (770-476BCE) and early Warring States (476-221BCE) periods. Historians and archaeologists commonly agree that Buye had another name “Yeyang” and had its own bronze knife-coins. The bronze knife-coins were a kind of coin money. During the Western Zhou, many vassal states of the Zhou had made knife-coins. The Yeyang knife-coins were only found in today’s Buye area and were different from the knife-coins, which were made by the Zhou’s vassal states, suggesting Yeyang was an independent nation instead of the Zhou’s vassal state.

More than 400 bronze wares, including bronze rituaI vessels made during the time of the western Zhou (1046-771BCE), discovered in the Guicheng site in Longkou of Yantai, suggesting an ancient nation. The inscriptions of a bronze Gui, 51 words, which are different from the Shang’s and Zhou’s scripts, prove that the nation had its own writing characters. The Guicheng bronze wares let us know that the Guicheng ancient nation had existed for a long time before the remaining Ji people (in 690BCE) and Lai people (in 567BCE) escaped to the east of the Jiaolai River.

One of the Guicheng bronze wares has five words of inscription, which were translated by archaeologist Chen Meng-jia (1911-1966) to be “Lai Bo made Lü Ding (tripod cauldron for army junction).” Therefore, some historians regarded Guicheng as the Lai Nation’s capital. However, Wang Xian-tang (1896-1960), former vice director of Shandong Provincial Cultural Relics Administration Committee, said in his book Ji Bronze Wares of Huang County (today’s Longkou), “Guicheng was not the capital of the Lai Nation,” and the scripts should be translated to be “Hua Bo made Lü Ding.” During the Shang and Zhou, “Bo” was the second peerage rank often used to name the king of a hostile nation. The “Hua Bo Lü Ding” is surely an evidence of the existing of a big ancient nation of Hua, which lasted until the end of the Zhou in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula. The Guicheng site is highly possible the capital or a majoy city of the Hua Nation.

Clearly, the Buye or Yeyang Nation and Hua (Guicheng) Nation, which lasted until the end of the Zhou, were independent nations and their resources were the earliest Jiaodong ancient nations, which were founded by the Nü He People as early as Longshan Culture, earlier than the Xia.

Archeologists have found Chinese character Hua in ancient Shang Oracle bone scripts, which looks like a tree blooms flourishing and referred to a kind of sacrifice to Shang’s ancestors. He Jing-cheng, professor of Jilin University, thinks that it looks like a bright burning torch, which is tied up with reeds.

The original meaning of Hua is the Paulownia blooms flourishing. Paulownia, which had been regarded as sacred tree before the Qin Dynasty, is also named phoenix tree in China. It was said that the phoenixes perched only on Paulownia trees. From its original meaning of Paulownia blooms flourishing, the meanings of “Hua” extend to flowery, illustrious, grand and even the integrity of sovereign. Hua also means magnificent costumes when it is used in the name of Hua Xia (recorded in Zuozhuan and Shangshu).

The Classic of the Great Wilderness: South tells that the Xi He People lived in the upper reach of the Ganshui River in the southwestern Taishan Mountains. The Shang’s ancestors living in Qufu, where was located in the Xi He People’s territory, suggests that they were offspring of the Xi He People.

Archeologists have found Chinese character Hua in ancient Shang Oracle bone scripts referred to a kind of sacrifice to Shang’s ancestors, suggesting the Shang’s emperors regarded the Hua People as their ancestors, therefore, the Xi He People came from the Hua People. Also Shanhaijing and legends say that the Xi He and Chang Xi People had the same resource - the Nü He People. Therefore, the Xi He and Chang Xi People came from the Hua People, one group of the Nü He People in the Jiaodong Peninsula.   

The Nü He People chose “He,” whose literal meanings include “together with, and,” “harmonization, integration” and “peace or kindness” in some uses, as the name of their group, hinting that the Nü He had the idea of integration with other ancient groups of Chinese people. The Hua (Nü He) People inherited the “He” idea from the Nü He and began to integrated with the Di Jun People by sending the Xi He and Chang Xi People to marry with the Di Jun men and give birth to ten Ri (sun) and twelve Yue (moon) People.

The Nü He People worshipped the Yuan (red or fire phoenix), which could control the sun and the moon, recorded in Shanhaijing. Also Chinese legends say that the phoenix perched only on Paulownia (Hua) tree. This hints us that the original fire Phoenix worship was from the Nü He People, who lived in a place, where grew many Paulownia (Hua) trees, therefore, they named their place “Hua” and called themselves the Hua People.

From legends and archaeological discoveries, we can ascertain that Hua was almost certainly a Nü He nation in the eastern Shandong Peninsula, which was earlier and more developed than the Xia Dynasty. However, archaeologists have not discovered evidence of the exact location of the Hua Nation.

9143212279?profile=original9143212098?profile=original 9143218081?profile=original

Shanhaijing’ records and archaeological discoveries reveal that the Zhou Dynasty falsified the stories of the Zhou’s ancestors being Di Jun’s offspring and all other peoples being Huang Di’s offspring to make the allied force to fight with the Zhou against the much larger Shang Dynasty, also later to rule all groups of people. The earliest records of the Xia Dynasty were during the Zhou, who put the Xia, offspring of the Di Jun People, to be the first dynasty in China and deliberately eliminated important records of the Shao Hao People, including the Hua Nation. The Zhou’s falsified stories had deeply influenced later historians and scholars, including the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals, GuoYu, ChunQiu and even Sima Qian (145-87BCE), author of The Records of the Grand Historian, or Shiji.

 

Originally, the Descendants of Hua Xia were not the Descendants of Yan Huang.

Hua Xia refers to the Hua nation and Xia nation, while Yan Huang refers to Yan Di and Huang Di.

Archaeological Discoveries and Shanhaijng’s records tell us that the Yan Di People lived in the west and north of the Taklamakan Desert, later spread out to the north and northwest of the Tianshan Mountains. They did not contribute to the development of the Yellow River Valley Cultural System. The Huang Di People spread out from the Eastern Pamirs to the west of the Qinghai Lake, later spread out to the Tianshan Mountains and its north, the north of the Yellow River and north of the Yinshan Mountains. They were founders of farming cultures: Xiaohexi (about 6500BCE), Xinglongwa (6200-5400BCE) and Zhaojiagou (5200-4400BCE) in Aohan Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the southeast of the Da Xing’an Ling Mountains, and Hongshan Culture (4000-3000BCE), which have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning. These cultures did not contribute to the development of the Yellow River Valley Cultural System.

The Hua (Nü He) and Xi He People, the root of Dong Yi Culture, had deeply influenced the early Xia People with the most advanced Dong Yi Culture. The Hua Nation was built by the Hua (Nü He) People in the eastern Shandong Peninsula during Longshan Culture, earlier than the Xia Dynasty. The Hua People inherited the “He” idea from the Nü He, being the first one to integrated with the Di Jun People by sending the Xi He and Chang Xi People to marry with the Di Jun men and give birth to ten Ri (sun) and twelve Yue (moon) People.

In order to make a united nation, the Shang Emperors claimed that their ancestors were offspring of Di Jun (father) and Jian Di (mother), bearing some resemblances with the story of Di Jun men marrying with the Xi He women and giving birth to ten groups of the Ri (sun) People. The Shang Dynasty, who were offspring of the Xi He, Hua and Nü He People, inherited the “He (integration)” idea from the Nü He People. The Shang was the first dynasty who tried to unite the Hua People (Shao Hao’s offspring) and the Xia People (Di Jun’s offspring) to be one big group - the Hua Xia People.

Before the Shang and Zhou dynasties, there were no written records of the Xia Dynasty, who were offspring of the Di Jun People. An historical record proves that the Zhou’s peerages trying to eliminate all historial records of the Shao Hao People. When the State of Qi destroyed the Shao Hao nations Ji and Lai, they killed many peoples, burning their capitals, temples and all historical records and forcing their remaining peoples to move to other places.

During the Zhou Dynasty (about1046-256BCE), the Hua and Xia Peoples were already regarded as one big group - Hua Xia People. The Zhou, who fabricated the false stories that they were offspring of the Di Jun People and Huang Di were common ancestors of all the Hua Xia People, promoted that the Hua was Xia and the Xia was Hua. The Zhou claimed that all Chinese were descendants of Yan Huang, including the Hua and Xia Peoples. However, in the Zhou’s strict hierarchical system, almost all the Hua and Xia Peoples, who made up the overwhelming majority in the population in the Yellow and Changjiang River valleys, were Ye Ren or Common people and lived in the suburb and countryside. The slaves in the lowest class were often regarded as livestock; the Ye Ren in the second-lowest class had no political rights, no rights to join the army, no rights to build a school or study in a school, and no rights to write a book. While the Guo Ren or State people and all peerages, who came from the Zhou People or offspring of the Yan and Huang Peoples, had helped the Zhou to destroy the Shang, therefore lived in the cities.

Due to the Shang and Zhou claiming they were offspring of the Di Jun People, ancient historical chronicles precluded the Hua and put the Xia as the first dynasty of ancient China when compiling ancient Chinese history. The earliest records of “Hua Xia” were in the Zhou Dynasty. Shangshu.Zhou.Wucheng records, “Hua Xia and barbarians, all were in obedience.” Zhuozhuan.Dinggong (Lu 509-495BCE) year 10 records, “people from borderlands would not harm Xia and Yi peoples would not harm Hua.” Traditionally, the Shang and Zhou called people who lived in the east and south and did not surrender to them, with Yi, but called people, who lived in the north and west and did not surrender to them, with Rong and Di. Zhuozhuan.Shanggong (Lu 575-542BCE) year 14 records Jiang Rong, Zi Juzhi, “Our Rong groups’s clothes and foods were different with Hua. The money was different and languanges were different.”

The actual political and military control by the Zhou Dynasty, surnamed Ji, lasted only until 771BCE, while during the Warring States (771-256BCE) in melee, a series of states rose to prominence before each falling in turn, but Zhou was a minor player in these conflicts. In 221BCE, Qinshihuang (259-210BCE) swallowed up all other states and built the first centralization of authority in China. However due to its harshness, the Qin Dynasty (221-206BCE) did not eliminate the domestic contradictions and it lasted only 17 years.

9143214877?profile=original 

Liu’s non-biological father and his mother were socially inferior, suggesting they were the Zhou’s Ye Ren or common people. Certainly, they were natives from the Zhou’s conqured land - they were offspring of the Xi He or Shao Hao People.

After Liu Bang (256-195BCE) set up the Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE), he chose the centralization of authority system instead of the Zhou’s hereditary fiefs system. He abolished slavery, promised “everyone is equal” and let everyone become a citizen of China. Liu Bang inherited the “He (integration)” idea from the Nü He People, promoting the Huang Di, Yan Di, Zhuan Xu, Shao Hao, Di Jun, Hua and Xia Peoples were a big family. He reduced taxation and covee and let the citizens recuperate and multiply. During the Han, all Chinese people had a strong national identify with their county. The Han Dynasty achieved integration of all ancient Chinese people, including the Hua Xia majority and Yan Huang minority, and made the “He” (integration) culture become the most important part of Han Culture. The Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE) was the first dynasty who united all groups of ancient Chinese people, including the Huang Di, Yan Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao, to be one big group - Han People or Han Nationality, commonly called Hua People until today. Hanshu.diyizhi records the first census of the Han Dynasty in 2CE. The Han population was about 63 million, 23.14% of the world population (about 272.27 million). Counting in all people of the Protectorate of the Western Regions foreigners, the Han Dynasty ruled about 30% of the world population.

 

The Demographic Changes between the Hua Xia People and Yan Huang People during China History.

During the Han Dynasty, the overwhelming majority of the population was the Hua Xia People in the Yellow and Changjiang River Valleys, while the Yan Huang People were in a minority. Since the Han Dynasty, all ancient groups of Chinese peoples were called the Han People.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589CE), a prolonged stand-off between the southern dynasties who controlled the southern territories of China and the northern dynasties who controlled the northern territories of China, most of the rulers of the northern dynasties coming from the northern nomadic people, who were the Yan Di’s and Huang Di’s offspring and worshipped dragon. Dragon worship first bloomed in the northern China. During this period, the descendants of the Yan Huang increased in the Yellow River Valley, but still made up a small percentage of the total population in that area.

The Tang Dynasty (618-907) followed the Han policy and achieved again integration of all ancient Chinese people. During Gaozong’s reign, the Tang’s territorial area was 1237 square kilometers, the largest in China history. During the Tang Dynasty, majority of the population was the Hua Xia People were in a majority and the Yan Huang People were in a minority in the Yellow and Changjiang River Valleys.

The Song Dynasty (960-1279) divided into the North Song (960-1127), which had 280 square kilometers, and the South Song (1127-1279), which had 200 square kilometers. The Song lived a harsh fighting time with the descendants of Yan Huang, who set up many countries in the north, including some large countries, Liao (907-1125), Xixia (1038-1227) and Jin (1115-1234). During the South Song Dynasty, the overwhelming majority of the population was the Yan Huang People in the Yellow River Valley and the overwhelming majority of the population was the Hua Xia People in the Changjiang River valley and its south.

9143218459?profile=original9143218300?profile=original 

In 1206, Borjigin Temujin (1162-1227) united all groups of the Mongolians and set up the Mongol Empire (1206-1259) and called himself Genghis Khan. The Mongol’s territorial area had reached 3300 square kilometers in 1240s, but was divided in 1259. In 1271, Borjigin Kublai (1215-1294) set up the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) with the capital of Yanjing (today’s Beijing). In 1279, the Yuan destroyed the South Song.

During the wars between the Song with the Mongol Empire and Yuan Dynasty, The Mongol general Bayan ordered the killing of the Han People and Southern People with the surnames of Liu, Li, Zhang, Wang and Zhao. The Mongolians killed 91% of the people in China and 98% in the Shandong Peninsula in a genocide that was included in the Guinness Book of World Records 1985 edition. The Mongol armies reduced China’s population from 93.47 million in 1122 to 8.87 million in 1274.

During the Yuan Dynasty, it was the first time that the overwhelming majority population of China were the descendants of Yan Huang; while the descendants of Hua Xia became the minority and were regarded as the third-class citizen.

Zhu Yuan-zhang, the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) appealled “expel the Tatar (a disdainful appellation to Mongols) barbarians, to revive Zhong Hua.” During the Ming, large immigrations were organized or forced by the government. The most famous large-scale immigration was the Shanxi People moved to other provinces, including Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Beijing, Anhui, Shandong and even Inner Mongolia. The Ming government chose Han and Tang’s policies to achieve integration of all ancient Chinese people. The Ming increased China’s population to 100 million in 1589. Due to the majority population in the Yellow and Changjiang River Valleys in the early Ming were the descendants of Yan Huang, the Ming emperors started wearing Dragon Robes and calling themselves “Son of God, The Real Dragon.” The dragon evolved into the imperial symbol since the Ming and became a symbol of power, strength and good luck and even a totem of China.

During the war between the Ming and Qing Dynasty (1636-1911), China’s population reduced to 14 million in 1643. The ancestors of the Qing People (Manchus) were from the previous Jin Dynasty (1115-1234), who were the descendants of Yan Huang, living in the northern grasslands. In the early Qing Dynasty, the majority population of China were the descendants of Yan Huang. In order to ease ethnic and social tensions, the Qing government adopted Han culture, proposed “Manchu and Han were one family” and the emperors selected very few girls from the Han Bannermen’s daughters to promote ethnic harmony. However, the Han People were regarded as the second-class citizen, the Han Bannermen were in low social status than the Manchu Bannermen.

Since the Emperor Kang-xi, the Qing government established the preferential policies to encourage the people to move from densely populated areas into uninhabited lands. Many descendants of the Hua Xia People, who used to escaped to the remote wild parts, came back to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow and Changjiang Rivers.

The Huaxing (Hua rising) Society, one of China Revival Societies, was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shi-zhao, Chen Tian-hua and Song Jiao-ren, along with 100 others.They put forward to “expel the Tatar (a disdainful appellation to Manchus) barbarians, to revive Zhong Hua.” Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmeng Society) was set up in 1905, Sun Zhong-shan promoted to “expel the Tatar barbarians, revive Zhong Hua, establish a Republic and distribute land equally among the people.” Chinese abolished the Qing Dynasty in 1912, set up a republic country and named it the “Republic of Zhong Hua,” and foreigners named it “China.”

The name of Hua was from the ancient Jiaodong nation - Hua Nation, which was built by the Hua (Nü He) People, who were the cradle of ancient Chinese Civilization and Han Culture. Today, all Chinese peoples were called the “Han People” or “Han Nationality,” also commonly called “Hua People.” The name of China, “Zhong (literally central) Hua,” indicates that all groups of Chinese people (Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuang Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao) unite together with the Hua People - centric.

 

Conclusion

Due to the long-time of the matriarchal clan society, it was difficult to ascertain an individual’s patriarchal clan. However, almost all groups of ancient Chinese People accepted only endogamy during the Neolithic Age, enabling Shanhaijing to identify about 150 groups of people, who came from the five biggest groups of people and had played important roles in making ancient Chinese civilization. The five most famous groups were the Yan Di, Huang Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao. They first lived in the Pamirs Plateau, soon gathered in the area in the west of the Qinghai Lake and north of the Tibetan Plateau, then moved to other places of China during about 16,000-14,000 years BP.

The Yan Di People lived in the west and north of the Taklamakan Desert, later spread out to the north and northwest of the Tianshan Mountains. They did not contribute to the development of the Yellow River Valley Cultural System.

The Huang Di People moved to the north of the Yellow River, north of the Yinshan Mountains and northeastern areas. They later developed farming civilizations, including Xiaohexi Culture (about 6500BCE), Xinglongwa Culture (6200-5400BCE) and Zhaojiagou Culture (5200-4400BCE) in Aohan Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the southeast of the Da Xing’an Ling Mountains, and Hongshan Culture (4000-3000BCE), which have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning. These cultures did not contribute to the development of the Yellow River Valley Cultural System.

The Di Jun and Shao Hao People moved along the Weihe River Valley to the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Shandong Peninsula, then to the south. The Di Jun lived in the west of the Shao Hao’s territories, which were near the sea.

Historians commonly agree that the rulers of the Zhou Dynasty united China with help from the Huang Di People (especially, Bei (north) Di and Xi (west) Rong People) and the Yan Di People (especially, Di Qiang People). To encourage the assimilation of all Chinese people, the Zhou fabricated several new stories, which could not be found in the previous three books of Shanhaijing, and added these stories into one more part to Shanhaijing - Five Classic of Regions Within the Seas, declaring King Yan Di and Huang Di to be the common ancestors of all Chinese people and falsely claiming that Di Jun, Zhuan Xu and Shao Hao were descendants of Huang Di and Yan Di.

Dong Yi Culture was the leading culture of the Xia Dynasty, which was built in the regions of outposts of Dong Yi Culture; the root of the Shang Dynasty, which was built in the inhabitation areas of Longshan Dong Yi Culture (about 3200-1900BCE); and the root of the Zhou’s Culture, which learned from Dong Yi Culture and built in the regions of outposts of Dong Yi Culture; the root of the Qin Dynasty (221-207BCE), whose emporers were offspring of the Shao Hao People; the root of The Hundred Schools of Thought and its successor Han Culture, which started during the Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE), was inherited and carried forward by Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) and lasted in China for more than 2,000 years.

The most advanced Dong Yi Culture was built by the Shao Hao People first in the Shandong Peninsula, later spread to the Yellow River and Changjiang River valleys and other places, greatly influenced the development of other early cultures and had the leading role in making the Yellow River Valley Cultural System the root of ancient Chinese civilization. Most small regional cultures of ancient China had faded by the end of Neolithic Age, included the Changjiang River Valley Cultural System. However, the Yellow River Valley Culture became the mainstay of ancient Chinese civilization and developed to a much higher level.

The Nü He People (called Mother of Yue (moon) in Shanhaijing), who lived in the Jiaodong (eastern Shandong) Peninsula, was one group of the Shao Hao People, had worried about the sea level rising and had sent the Xi He and Chang Xi People to the west of the Shandong Peninsula to expand the scope of their territories. The Nü He held the most advanced science and technologies during the Neolithic Age and were the founders of the earliest Neolithic Chinese astronomy and Calendar. They built unique Jiaodong coastal and maritime cultures, the earliest Chinese Maritime Culture, also Dawenkou (about 4100-2600BCE) and Longshan (about 3200-1900BCE) cultures in the eastern Shandong. The Xi He were the developers of Beixin (about 5300-4100BCE), Dawenkou (about 4100-2600BCE) and Longshan (about 3200-1900BCE) cultures in the western Shandong. Therefore the Nü He were the main founders of Dong Yi Culture.

The Hua and Xi He People both were ancestors of the Shang and had the same resources - the Nü He People in the Jiaodong Peninsula, and the Xi He came from the Hua People, who were ancestors of the Chang Xi, Yue (moon), Xi He, Ri (sun) People and the Shang’s emperors. The Hua People founded the Hua Nation in the Jiaodong Peninsula, as early as Longshan Culture (3200-1900BCE), earlier than the Xia Dynasty (2070-1600BCE). Hua Bo Lü Ding (King Hua’s tripod cauldron for army junction) is the evidence of the existing of a big advanced and independent ancient nation of Hua, which was located in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula and lasted until the end of the Zhou.

It is very logical that the name of “Hua Xia” came from the nations of Hua and Xia. Before the Shang and Zhou dynasties, there were no written records of the nations of Hua and Xia. Today, there is no firm archaeological evidence to prove the existence of nations of Hua and Xia. However, Chinese archaeologists generally identify Erlitou as the site of the Xia Dynasty, who were offspring of the Di Jun People, also archaeological discoveries have proved that the earliest nations in China were built by the Shao Hao (including Hua) People in the Shandong Peninsula. Due to the Shang and Zhou claiming they were offspring of the Di Jun People, ancient historical chronicles precluded the Hua and put the Xia as the first dynasty of ancient China when compiling ancient Chinese history.

“He” Culture, a culture of integration and harmonization, is the quintessence of Chinese Han Culture. Literally, “He” means “together with, and,” “harmonization, integration” and “peace or kindness” in some uses. The Hua People inherited the “He” idea from the Nü He and began to integrated with the Di Jun People by sending the Xi He and Chang Xi People to marry with the Di Jun men and give birth to ten Ri (sun) and twelve Yue (moon) People. The Shang Dynasty (1600-1046BCE) was the first dynasty who united the Hua People and the Xia People to be one big group - Hua Xia People. The Han Dynasty (202BCE-220CE) became the first dynasty who united all groups of ancient Chinese people, including the Huang Di, Yan Di, Zhuan Xu, Di Jun and Shao Hao, to be one big group - Han People or Han Nationality, also commonly called Hua People until today.

The Mongolians, offspring of Yan Huang, set up the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), killed 91% of the people in China and 98% in the Shandong Peninsula in a genocide that was included in the Guinness Book of World Records 1985 edition. The Mongol armies reduced China’s population from 93.47 million in 1122 to 8.87 million in 1274. The descendants of Hua Xia became the minority and were regarded as the third-class citizen. Zhu Yuan-zhang appealled “expel the Tatar (a disdainful appellation to Mongols) barbarians, to revive Zhong Hua,” destroyed the Yan Dynasty (1271-1368) and set up the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

The ancestors of the Qing People (Manchus) were from the previous Jin Dynasty (1115-1234), who were the descendants of Yan Huang, the Qing (1636-1911) government adopted Han culture, proposed “Manchu and Han were one family,” but the Han People were regarded as the second-class citizen. The Huaxing (Hua-rising) Society, one of China Revival Societies founded in 1904, put forward to “expel the Tatar (a disdainful appellation to Manchus) barbarians, to revive Zhong Hua.” Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmeng Society) was set up in 1905, Sun Zhong-shan promoted to “expel the Tatar barbarians, revive Zhong Hua, establish a Republic and distribute land equally among the people.” Chinese abolished the Qing Dynasty in 1912, set up a republic country and named it the “Republic of Zhong Hua,” and foreigners named it “China.”

The name of “Zhong (literally central) Hua” indicates that all groups of Chinese people unite together with the Hua People - centric.

 

References

[1] Archaeological discoveries of Neolithic Age in Shandong Peninsula, Yantai Museum, April 3, 2007

http://www.jiaodong.net/wenhua/system/2006/12/22/000110743.shtml  accessed January 19, 2014

[2] Li Xiao-ding, Collected Explanations of Shell and Bone Characters, Jiagu wenzi zhishi, 1965, 8 Volumes, The Institute of History and Philology.

[3] Liu Feng-Jun, Changle Bone Inscriptions, December 2008, Shandong Pictorial Publishing House

[4] Liu Xiang (79BCE-8BCE) and Liu Xin (53BCE-23BCE, son of Liu Xiang) were first editors of Shanhaijing (before 4200BCE-256BCE).

[5] Carleton S. Coon, The Races of Europe (1939), Greenwood Press, 1972, p.482.

[6] Li H, Huang Y, Mustavich LF, Zhang F, Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River, Human Genetic, 2007 Nov;122(3-4):383-8.

[7] Excavation of the Beizhuang Site at Changdao, Shandong by the Practice Archaeological Team of Beijing University and Others, Kaogu (Archaeology) May 1987, pp.385-400, text in Chinese, Beijing.

[8]  Li Wang, Hiroki Oota, Naruya Saitou, Feng Jin, Takayuki Matsushita, and Shintaroh Ueda,  Genetic Structure of a 2,500-Year-Old Human Population in China and Its Spatiotemporal Changes, May 29, 2000.

[9] Vivien Gornitz, Sea Level Rise, After the Ice Melted and Today, Jan 2007, NASA,

http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/briefs/gornitz_09/  accessed June 2, 2016

[10] Zhao Xi-tao, Sea-level changes of eastern China during the past 20000 years, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 1979, I-2.

[11] Zhou Li, or The Rites of Zhou, is - along with the Book of Rites and the Etiquette and Ceremonial - one of three ancient ritual texts (the “Three Rites”) listed among the classics of Confucianism. Its first editor was Liu Xin (50BCE-23CE), who credited it to the Duke of Zhou.

Other Scholarly Papers Presented and Published by Soleilmavis.

https://peacepink.ning.com/profiles/blogs/scholarly-papers-presented-and-published-by-soleilmavis

Read more…