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‘听到声音’不是精神病-精神疾病诊断与统计手册DSM版本五

精神疾病诊断与统计手册 DSM V

精神疾病诊断与统计手册》(The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,简称DSM)由美国精神医学学会出版,是一本在美国与其他国家中最常使用来诊断精神疾病的指导手册。http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/DSM-IV

DSM-5 Draft Criteria Open for Final Public Comment

May 2nd through June 15th, 2012

新的‘精神疾病诊断与统计手册DSM’关于某些修改的消息短期内将发布出来,包含了一个话题需要探讨某些基本问题的首要的和最重要的法律性质。

废除关于某些人声称‘听到声音’后‘不可避免的’精神分裂症的诊断,能够让这些人无需接受专业的心理治疗。

另一方面,把‘听到声音’列为或多或少的正常现象,是主观性质,容易涉及法律诉求的问题. 因而将调查声音是从技术上的通过如芯片植入声音等传送方式,由外部导致的。 

这些问题的后续效应和法律意义,及公众对事态发展及预防的了解和知识,将深刻影响不但是‘受害者’,而且是‘肇事者’的社会生活和经济生活的许多方面。 因为它会影响其使用所涉及的技术的发展,进而它的“工业生产”,和巨额资金的投资和流向方式。而且它会影响医疗和真正关注的治疗科学,以及假装‘试验’途径等的科技医疗伪科学。 

科学革命:听到声音不是疾病

 

那些‘听到声音’的人不是强迫性的疯子,新版本的‘精神疾病诊断与统计手册’DSM5明确指出,幻听是人类的完全正常的现象,意大利帕多瓦大学university of Padova,临床心理学主任和教授,是关于这个课题的许多文章的作者,Alessandro Salvini在杂志‘Affari’上评论说:‘精神病学一直在诬蔑这些症状(幻听),声称这些症状(听到声音)是精神病症状。但是,从现在起,多亏了新的精神疾病诊断与统计手册DSM,幻听,即所谓的‘声音’存在于正常的人口的8%到15%将不再正确。

 

The news about certain modifications of the new DSM due shortly to come out in print, contains a topic that entails some fundamental problems, first and foremost of a legal nature:

  1. the suppression of the 'unavoidable' diagnosis of schizofrenia for people that declare 'hearing voices' may exclude these people from receiving professional psychological help,
  2. while on the other hand, changing hearing voices into a more or less 'normal' phenomenon, being 'subjective' in nature, can easily lead to the dismissal of any legal complaint and hence investigation into the possibility that these voices are technologically induced from outside or by way of implanted devices containing microchip sound-transmitters.


Those are problems that will have enormous consequences in the future as to their legal implications, and regarding the public awareness and knowledge about developments -or the prevention thereof- of things as well as regarding these developments themselves, that may deeply affect many facets of life in society and of economic life for not just the 'victims' and the 'perpetrators': because it will affect also the development of the technology involved, of its use and hence its 'industrial production', and the way huge amounts of capital will be invested and flow in one way or another, and it will affect medical and 'therapeutical' science- science that is that really 'cares'- as wel as the technological medical pseudo-science that 'plays' by way of 'experiments', etc...
All this is enough to make one sick, and more than just in a metaphorical sense.

Cool-true

Revolution in science: hearing voices is not an illness.

People who are hearing voices aren't forcibly insane. The new edition of the DSM, DSM V, is clear about that: auditory hallucinations are perfectly normal phenomena in humans. The dean of clinical psychology in Italy, professor at the university of Padova and author of numerous texts on this subject, Alessandro Salvini, comments in the magazine 'Affari': “Psychiatry has always stigmatized these phonomena, declaring them symptoms of psychosis. But from now on, thanks to the new DSM, this will no longer be true: auditory hallucinations, the so called 'voices', exist in a section of the normal population ranging from 8 to 15%.”

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幻听:比较精神病患者和非精神病患者

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Academic Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

荷兰马斯特里赫特大学,马斯特里赫特学院医院,精神病学和神经心理学科

The form and the content of chronic auditory hallucinations were compared in three cohorts, namely patients with schizophrenia, patients with a dissociative disorder, and nonpatient voice-hearers. The form of the hallucinatory experiences was not significantly different between the three groups. The subjects in the nonpatient group, unlike those in the patient groups, perceived their voices as predominantly positive: they were not alarmed or upset by their voices and felt in control of the experience. In most patients, the onset of auditory hallucinations was preceded by either a traumatic event or an event that activated the memory of earlier trauma. The significance of this study is that it presents evidence that the form of the hallucinations experienced by both patient and nonpatient groups is similar, irrespective of diagnosis. Differences between groups were predominantly related to the content, emotional quality, and locus of control of the voices. In this study the disability incurred by hearing voices is associated with (the reactivation of) previous trauma and abuse.

Note from Soleilmavis: The nonpatient voice-hearers are possibly harassing by “V2K” (Voice to skull), even they have not suffered other symptoms from Mind control and Directed Energy weapons torturing and harassment, But they are possibly surveillance with mind reading technologies. And they don’t know they are under mind control and electromagnetic weapons torturing and harassing yet.

慢性幻听形式和内容,在三种人群中作了比较,分别是精神分裂症患者, 分离性障碍患者,和非患者听到声音者。这三种人群的幻听体验的表现明显不同:非患者受试者与患者明显不同,对他们的声音正面为主,他们并不会惊慌和沮丧,并且被声音控制。而大多数的患者,在幻听发病之前,往往会发作创伤性事件,或有关事件能够引起对以前创伤性事件的回忆。本研究的重要性在于它给出了证据,患者和非患者所体验的患听形式很相似。两种人群的差别在于,心态是否正面,情感素质,声音控制的场所。在这项研究,听到声音引起的障碍,是跟以前的创伤和凌辱有关。

Soleilmavis注:专家们挑选的非精神病患者的“幻听”人群,可能很多人受到过“V2K”(声音直接传入颅骨的技术)的骚扰,虽然还没有遭到其他的大脑控制武器和定向能武器的虐待,但是他们可能也被长期监视,或者阅读思维。但是受害者自己还不知情。

Interpretations of voices in patients with hallucinations and non-patient controls: a comparison and predictors of distress in patients.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDeta...

解读声音在有幻听的精神病患者和非精神病患者的控制:精神病患者困窘的比较和预测

Psychology Services, Mental Health Services of Salford, Bury New Road, Manchester M25 3BL, UK.

Salford心理咨询服务,心理健康服务,英国,曼彻斯特,Bury New路,M25 3BL

BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypotheses that interpretations of voices will be associated with distress linked to auditory hallucinations, and that patients experiencing hallucinations will exhibit higher levels of negative interpretations in comparison with non-patients. METHOD: The Interpretation of Voices Inventory (British Journal of Clinical Psychology 41 (2002) 259) was administered to patients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia spectrum disorders with auditory hallucinations and non-patients. Patients were also assessed using a semi-structured interview to assess clinical dimensions of their voices. RESULTS: The results showed that people with psychosis who experience auditory hallucinations did exhibit higher levels of positive and negative interpretations of voices, in comparison to non-patients. Correlational analyses revealed that interpretations of voices were significantly associated with emotional, physical and cognitive characteristics of voices. Regression analyses demonstrated that physical characteristics of voices and metaphysical beliefs were significant predictors of emotional characteristics of voices. CONCLUSIONS: The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

研究背景:本研究测试假设解读声音伴随跟幻听相连的窘迫,而出现幻听的精神病患者,与非精神病患者相比较,呈现较高的负面表现。

研究方法:诠释声音库存(英国临床心理学杂志41 ( 2002 ) 259 )提供符合有幻听的精神分裂类疾病美国DSM-IV 诊断标准的精神病患者和非精神病患者。患者还采用半结构化面试评估,从临床层面评估他们听到的声音。

研究结果:结果表明,与非精神病患者相比,有幻听经验的患有精神病的人,表现更强的正面和负面的解读声音。相关分析显示,解读声音明显与心理,生理和声音的认知特点有关。回归分析表明,声音的物理特性与声音的抽象会显著预告声音的情感特质。

结论:以上讨论结果包含理论和临床这些研究发现。

Selective speech perception alterations in schizophrenic patients reporting hallucinated "voices".

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDeta...

报告幻觉的"声音"的精神分裂症患者选择性语言知觉改建

Department of Psychiatry, Yale UniversitySchool of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., USA.

美国耶鲁大学医学院精神病学系,New Haven, Conn

OBJECTIVE: The authors tested a model of hallucinated "voices" based on a neural network computer simulation of disordered speech perception. METHOD: Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who reported hallucinated voices were compared with 21 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who did not report voices and 26 normal subjects. Narrative speech perception was assessed through use of a masked speech tracking task with three levels of superimposed phonetic noise. A sentence repetition task was used to assess grammar-dependent verbal working memory, and an auditory continuous performance task was used to assess nonlanguage attention. RESULTS: Masked speech tracking task and sentence repetition performance by hallucinating patients was impaired relative to both nonhallucinating patients and normal subjects. Although both hallucinating and nonhallucinating patients demonstrated auditory attention impairments when compared to normal subjects, the two patient groups did not differ with respect to these variables. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the hypothesis that hallucinated voices in schizophrenia arise from disrupted speech perception and verbal working memory systems rather than from nonlanguage cognitive or attentional deficits.

Note from Soleilmavis: “Selective speech perception alterations”, for an example, Auditory hallucinations, you ears have problem and can hear some “voices” which are not exist.

“Voices” that victims heard are different with the patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, <Auditory hallucinations: a comparison between patients and nonpatients> has given us the difference between the patients and the normal.

“Voices” that victims heard Strictly speaking, can not be called a “Auditory hallucinations". These “Voices” are electromagnetic frequency stimulating our brain neurons; our brain neurons hear the “voices”. We all know USA “V2K” technology. In 2002, the Air Force Research Laboratory patented precisely such a technology: Nonleghal weapon which includes (1) a neuro-electromagnetic device which uses microwave transmission of sound into the skull of persons or animals by way of pulse-modulated microwave radiation; and (2) a silent sound device which can transmit sound into the skull of person or animals. NOTE: The sound modulation may be voice or audio subliminal messages. One application of V2K is use as an electronic scarecrow to frighten birds in the vicinity of airports. http://peacepink.ning.com/forum/topics/introduce-v2k-voice-to-skull

目的:作者基于神经网络计算机仿真无序言语知觉测试幻觉的 "声音"模型.

方法: 24位报告有幻听的患有精神分裂类疾病的患者,与21位没有幻听报告的患有精神分裂类疾病的患者,及26位正常人比较。叙事言语知觉的评估是通过使用一个蒙面讲话跟踪有叠加语音噪声的三个层次的任务,一个句子重复任务是用来评估依赖语法的言语工作记忆,听觉连续执行任务是用来评估非语言注意力。

结果:幻听精神病患者在蒙面讲话跟踪任务和句子重复表现方面,相对非幻听精神病患者和正常人受损。虽然幻听精神病患者和非幻听精神病患者,与正常人相比都表现听觉注意力缺失。两组病人对这些变数并无不同。

结论:研究结果支持这一假设:精神分裂症的幻觉声音产生于干扰言语知觉和言语工作记忆系统,而不是非语言认知和注意力缺失。

Soleilmavis 注:这里的“选择性知觉改建”用老百姓的话讲,就是“有选择的感觉器官失误,比如幻听,耳朵这个感觉器官失误,会听到很多不存在的声音”。

受害者听到的“声音”与精神病患者听到的声音完全不同。精神病患者听到的声音完全不存在。Auditory hallucinations: a comparison between patients and nonpatients 幻听:比较精神病患者患者和非精神病患者患者,一文,已论证了正常人和精神病患者“幻听”的不同。

受害者听到的“声音”严格来讲不能称为“幻听”,因为这种“声音”是一定的电磁波频率信号直接传入大脑,刺激大脑的听觉神经元细胞,所导致大脑“听”到了“声音”。对于这种技术,我们都知道的美国V2K技术。

根据美国军队教材,V2K (Voice to Skull 声音直入颅骨)的定义和范围是:非致命武器,包括:(1)一种神经电磁感应器,可以通过脉冲调制微波辐射用微波将声音传入人和动物的颅骨;(2)一种不发声的声音装置,可以把声音传送入人的颅骨内。注意:这种可调制声音可以是语音或音频信号。其中v2k应用之一是用作电子稻草人在机场附近吓唬鸟。

Emotional prosodic processing in auditory hallucinations.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17107773&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus

幻听的情感韵律加工

Centre for Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville Vic 3052, Australia. t.shea@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au

澳大利亚墨尔本大学神经科学中心,Parkville Vic 3052

Deficits in emotional prosodic processing, the expression of emotions in voice, have been widely reported in patients with schizophrenia, not only in comprehending emotional prosody but also expressing it. Given that prosodic cues are important in memory for voice and speaker identity, Cutting has proposed that prosodic deficits may contribute to the misattribution that appears to occur in auditory hallucinations in psychosis. The present study compared hallucinating patients with schizophrenia, non-hallucinating patients and normal controls on an emotional prosodic processing task. It was hypothesised that hallucinators would demonstrate greater deficits in emotional prosodic processing than non-hallucinators and normal controls. Participants were 67 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (hallucinating=38, non-hallucinating=29) and 31 normal controls. The prosodic processing task used in this study comprised a series of semantically neutral sentences expressed in happy, sad and neutral voices which were rated on a 7-point Likert scale from sad (-3) through neutral (0) to happy (+3). Significant deficits in the prosodic processing tasks were found in hallucinating patients compared to non-hallucinating patients and normal controls. No significant differences were observed between non-hallucinating patients and normal controls. In the present study, patients experiencing auditory hallucinations were not as successful in recognising and using prosodic cues as the non-hallucinating patients. These results are consistent with Cutting's hypothesis, that prosodic dysfunction may mediate the misattribution of auditory hallucinations.

Note from Soleilmavis: Currently, Many doctors misdiagnose victims who hear “voices” or suffer other symptoms from Mind control and Directed Energy weapons torturing and harassment, these symptoms include: forced crying; forced tearing; forced laughing; hands shivering without control. They think victims are patients with schizophrenia, it is definitely wrong.

“Emotional prosodic processing” explained by another sentence which everyone can understand, is “could understand the right emotional coloring from an event or from a speaker”.

For an example: when hearing a joke, victims will 100% think it is a joke. Even sometimes, while they are attacking by Mind Control Electromagnetic waves, they can not control their tears (when the Mind Control Electromagnetic waves attack their brain neurons which are special to control the movement of tear gland; the brain neurons give a wrong order to nerve system of tear gland. Even victims know it is a funny joke, but tear gland are forced to move and burst into tears.) But they can understand the emotion coloring in the joke, if you ask them, they will tell you it is a funny joke, even they are forced to burst into tears.

You can’t tell that they are Deficits in emotional prosodic processing, just because they are bursting tears; you should ask them whether they can understand it is a funny joke

缺少情感韵律加工,声音中缺乏情感表达,在精神分裂症患者中有广泛报告,不仅是对情感韵律的理解,而且如何表达。鉴于在声音和说话者身份的记忆中,韵律线索非常重要;韵律缺乏会导致误区,因而出现在精神病中发生幻听。本研究比较幻听型精神分裂症患者,非幻听型精神分裂症患者和正常人的情感韵律加工。

假定幻听型患者比非幻听型患者和正常人会表现出更大的情感韵律加工缺乏。参与者67名被诊断为精神分裂症或精分裂情感障碍患者(幻听者38人,非幻听者29人)和31名正常人。在这项研究中使用的韵律加工测试,包含了一系列的语义中性的句子,用高兴,悲伤和中性的声音来表达。在7点李克特量表中评为了从悲伤( -3 ),到中立( 0 ),到高兴 ( +3 )。

与非幻听精神病患者和正常人相比,幻听型精神病患者被发现,韵律加工过程明显缺乏。非幻听精神病患者和正常人相比,没有发现明显不同。

在本研究中,患有幻听的精神病患者,与非幻听型精神病患者相比,在对韵律线索的认知和使用上不是很好。研究结果跟假定一致,韵律机能障碍会导致幻听误区。

Soleilmavis 注目前很多医生根据受害者听到“声音”或因为大脑神经原细胞被大脑控制武器的攻击时,会产生一些短暂的症状,如:突然失去控制哭泣,或忍不住流泪,或被强迫发笑,或手不由自主地颤抖,无法控制等等症状,而把受害者诊断为精神病。这种诊断完全错误。

“情感韵律加工”换句老百姓能听懂的话,就是能够理解一件事,或别人的一句话中的正确的感情成分,是对精神病人诊断时一个很重要的方面。

比如:听到了一个笑话,受害者100%会认为那是个笑话。虽然有时,他们正在被大脑控制武器的电磁波频率攻击时,眼睛不能控制地流泪(这种攻击的原理是:一定频率的电磁波攻击人的大脑专管眼睛泪腺活动的神经原细胞,所以大脑给专管眼睛泪腺活动的神经系统发出错误指令,即使知道是一个笑话,却被迫流下了眼泪。)他们不缺乏对感情色彩的理解,如果您问问他们,他们一定也知道这是个笑话,尽管他们被武器攻击,无法控制自己的眼睛泪腺,流下了眼泪。不能因为他们流眼泪,就判断他们缺乏“情感韵律加工”,而应该问问他们是否理解这是一个笑话,来判断他们是否缺乏“情感韵律加工‘。

Carole Smith是英国心理分析学者以及一位注册的精神病治疗医师
http://peacepink.ning.com/forum/topics/yu-jing-shen-qin-hai-ji-shu-de

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