gangstalking (13)

Cry for Help

I'm in desperate need of substantial amounts of financial

help as quickly as possible! Please help me.
Gang stalkers, here on the web and in my every day life, try to convince TIs that I'm a perp or a con-artist or could just get help somewhere else...etc., - in attempts to prevent me from getting the help I need. This has been a constant pattern in my life as well as here on PP. Please do not let them continue succeeding. 

I have already lost almost everything I'd owned and am out of resources! My businesses, homes, vehicles and jobs keep getting sabotaged or destroyed and I have no place to turn to for help. I am a decent person who used to own a nice country home and had perfect credit...etc., prior to the targeting vamping up to the point of destroying all that I had owned and held dear. I have been living in my vehicle through most of the past few years and now my vehicle is not registerable or inspectable. . .and I am not the type of person who will survive on the streets.  I need a miracle that can bring enough money for me to AT LEAST save what is left of my belongings and get a safe and functional vehicle to live in, ASAP. Please listen to your heart, because this is not a scam. It really isn't. And I am not a drug addict or alcoholic or any other negative thing that people tend to assume so they do not have to help. I am just a decent person who is a long term targeted individual. . .and I have hit a point where I desperately help from people who can understand.
I can not accept invitations to live with people because of being surrounded by gang stalkers who aim to use this as a way to lure me to places where abuse can be vamped up. I have even purchased a vehicle from a perp who kept a key, in 2011. (Can you imagine the hell I went through until they destroyed that vehicle?) And decent people whom I get close to tend to quickly become torchured and mind controlled. Seriously. Monetary help is the only type of help I need, so that I can make my own choice on what vehicle to purchase...and hopefully eventually. . .where to live and start rebuilding my life. I have survived this long through listening to my own instincts and sticking to myself and must continue doing the same. Even just enough money to purchase a functional vehicle for me to live in right now would be VERY helpful right now, This is not a game. Its not a joke. Its not a scam. I am being honest with you. Please find the heart to help me.
Sharon R. Poet
PO Box 383
Mont Vernon, NH 03057
My Pay Pal button is on the "Cry for Help" page of

Please believe that I have already repeatedly tried every avenue. Every place I turn to ends up being extremely temporary due to being surrounded by the chaos of gang stalkers and remote mind control manipulations, which, when involving other people, is worse than just living in a car by myself.  
Those who can't help, but want to, can perhaps periodically buy $2 or $1 lottery tickets for me or send a small amount weekly or take up collections from others. Though I need a lot to get me out of this situation and protect me from further harm, little bits of help can keep me hanging on and sort of surviving as I have been since 2005.
A few of the things I will use your offerings for:
A safe vehicle to live in. . .and fuel for it.
A chance to survive and heal and then work at helping others.
And then possibly. . .
Equipment to scan for microchips and have them removed for myself and others.
Technologies to detect and block radio waves and harmful microwave energy.
A safe place to live.

If I reach a point where I can pay you back with interest, I gladly will.
ATTENTION: Only considerate, comprehendable comments, that pertain to this post, will be allowed. Others may be posted only if they can teach us a lesson or expose stalkers.
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Humanity's Right to FREE WILL Can Not Be Interfered With Without Serious Consequences, Which Will Restore It.

As I watch humanity being crushed by criminal use of remote mind control technologies, my heart has hurt indescribably. (Not to mention what is happening to me!) Its like watching a herd of sheep being lead into slaughter houses. . .only the sheep are people - good decent people. And with no law enforcement or government help this whole situation has appeared too hopeless. Sometimes my pain has run so deep that it folds into shocked numbness. . .until recently - until I began to reach beyond my own hopeless situation and look at the bigger picture until I could See more clearly.

As humanity blindly sits at the greatest crossroad in history - the largest battle between the forces of Light and dark. . .the dark forces seem to have forgotten that the usual universal rules still apply.

   Throughout history, when the dark forces robbed a person of their FREE WILL they could not succeed with their aim, because in order to pull a person onto the dark side, that person has to FREELY choose that direction and NOT be forced in any way. They can be enticed, but NOT FORCED - not intruded upon, not invaded. . .and not deceived, because lies and deceptions take away FREE CHOICE which is what FREE WILL is about.

   What is now happening to most of humanity, through the deceitful and criminal use of media mind control tactics and microwave technologies is a gross violation of human rights - the dark forces are over stepping their boundaries so severely that they are sure to instigate their own failure.

Last year, one of the higher level perpetrators of this holocaust approached me through a web forum. . .trying to recruit me and convince me that this targeting of humanity is really a good thing which will have a good outcome...etc. After I refused to be enticed, my account was invaded and his messages erased.

   This same person recently leapt into commenting on an article I posted about mind control. . .again inconspicuously trying to convince me that there is nothing wrong with what they are doing to Targeted Individuals and the rest of humanity.

  I found myself feeling shocked by the delusional justifications for using UNEXPOSED subliminal messaging and mind control in TV programs and movies as well as using drugs in conjunction with remote mind control technologies and microwave weapons, in order to rob human beings of their FREE WILL - their right to FREELY think and feel in the ways that they naturally would without such intrusions. Here are a few of his statements. . .

"But what man is doing is really an imitation of what Satan is doing. Even Jesus acknowledged that Satan is the ruler of this system. And even the Illuminati admit they follow Satan. What Satan does is drugs the people with entertainment and fleshly desires. And all the while a much greater issue is going on; which they are completely unaware of. And they mock those who speak about it, because it is too fantastical for them to comprehend." "Yes, pushing radio waves on us is against our freewill. But it doesn't rob us of our freewill. . .Just like Satan with Job, man can only INFLUENCE us to hand it over of our own freewill. But it was still an act of freewill by which we surrendered ourselves to them. If one finds them self without freewill, it is because they relinquished it."

  "Yes, people can be hypnotized to do things they normally would not do; but being controlled by radio frequency is different; it's not hypnotism. . .Or as the Bible put it: "But each one is tried by being drawn out and enticed by his own desire. Then the desire, when it has become fertile, gives birth to sin...."—James 1:14-15"

I find myself wondering if this man, and the other criminals he works with, really believe that they have a right to play God and that lasoring people's brains with microwave energy is not seriously interfering with their ability to FREELY feel and think - their ability to FREELY CHOOSE - their ability to fully utilize their FREE WILL.

   There is a HUGE difference between "enticing" a person and forcing a person or disabling a person's FREE WILL. "Enticing" is an exterior beckoning force. Forcing is an invasive interference or destruction of FREE WILL. . .like physically grabbing a person and forcing them or like drugging them or torturing them or shooting damaging radio waves into a person's brain until he/she numbly says or follows almost anything. And these are the things that are being done to humanity for decades now!

The real TRUTH is that forcing people into choices that they would not make on their own, even if there are underlying desires, (which have been being intrusively watched) is NOT allowing FREE WILL and is a gross violation of universal law as well as our basic human rights. (The same applies to preventing people from going in certain directions, which has repeatedly happened to me.)

On the milder scales: When radio stations, movies and TV programs are loaded with subliminal messaging and other intentionally harmful mind control tactics, WITHOUT informing the public of exactly what is in them and what effect it could have on us - without offering the choice of exposure or not. . .it is a gross violation of a persons RIGHT to CHOOSE - a person's right to utilize their own FREE WILL.

On the largest scales: The same laws apply to remote mind control technologies. . .even if their only use were to be aimed at whole communities, states or countries, in order to severely numb our minds - to prevent us from thinking clearly and making good choices, it is a severe violation that strips away our right to FREELY choose.  Remote mind control is also being more intricately applied to individuals and families, since before the 1970s, in ways that rip away most of our FREE WILL, blocks our HEARTS and prevents the growth of our souls!

   So much destruction is being inflicted with the criminal use of microwave technologies that its difficult to describe and face and would take many books to fully cover.But please believe that this atrocity is indeed happening, has been happening for many decades and has not yet been stopped by law enforcement, because of its deceptive control tactics.

   But the bottom line here is. . .that the good news is. . .that this is all too horribly wrong to be allowed to continue for much longer. We may not see an end to it in our lifetimes, but that end WILL come and the HEART of humanity WILL BE FREE once again. It will.

Humanity's Right to FREE WILL Can Not Be Interfered With Without Serious Consequences. . .Which Will Restore It.


There is HOPE

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The prerecorded spotlight audio alpha tone conversions(alphabetical recordings of vowels) distribute through the visual static displayed on the mobile device and simultaiously through the tv.The pre,recorded alpha tones are a result from converting speech from a google app called cb chat which you use on your mobile device,  the visual static converts the sound into light by the emitters (a device used to exude any signal, beacon, light, odor, liquid, fragrance, ionizing particles or any other type of signal.)The light carries the modulation which is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodicwaveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted that are spotlight audio conversions(alphabetical vowel recordings) through subcarriers which are a seperate analouge or digital signal carried on main radio transmissions.This means the static light travels through the mobile device and television using an fm sub carrier 108,00fm.your mobile device not only broadcasts cb chat in ultrasound it also broadcasts the static light and also the fm carrier 108.00 fm.
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic waves with frequencies significantly below visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz.[1] These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fieldsthat pass through the air and the vacuum of space.
Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.
The spotlight conversions is amplitude(am)air modulated which is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each oscillation within an oscillating system. For example, sound waves in air are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation. If a variable undergoes regular oscillations, and a graph of the system is drawn with the oscillating variable as the vertical axis and time as the horizontal axis, the amplitude is visually represented by the vertical distance between the extrema of the curve and the equilibrium value that is broadcast on 95khz or 250khz frequencys.Human listeners can perceive speech from a voice-modulated ultrasonic carrier presented via a bone-conduction stimulator. This study explored the psychoacoustic characteristics and underlying mechanisms of ultrasonic hearing by measuring difference limens for frequency (DLF) for pure tones modulated onto ultrasonic carriers. Human subjects were presented with two pulsed tones and asked to judge whether the first or the second had the higher pitch. When amplitude modulation was based on a double side-band transmitted carrier, the DLFs were as small as those from the air-conducted pure tones at 0.25-4 kHz. Ultrasounds yielded larger DLFs for tones with low (0.125 kHz) and high (6-8 kHz) frequencies. Results were essentially identical between the two types of carriers, sine wave (30 kHz) and bandpass noise (30+/-4 kHz), despite the different bandwidths in the ultrasonic range. When amplitude modulation was based on a double side-band suppressed carrier, DLFs corresponded to those from tones with double frequencies. These results suggest nonlinear conduction that demodulates audible signals from ultrasounds and provides inputs to the cochlea.You subconciously register vowels through your paranoid state as they are now non-linear ,a controled emission of air controled by your eye sight, there is a connection between your mind and the surface area of what you see(if you aim the spotlight speaker at a wall the sound you convert appears to be coming from the wall if you aim it at the door the sound appears to come from the door) but you asscociate them with subconcious colour as blinking amplifys a reminder of the constonants you just saw accociated with BLACK,the surface area your mind connects to while your eyes are open registers all subconcious BLACK light surrounded by the infra ultra alpha tone A as said before this is a memory of a letter(A) chosen as an option other than EIOU(that are still registerd by sight but only as memory when eyes open))to form the letter BLACK while blinking the letter A has created a sound wave reflected back to the mind off the sight surface area amplifing the constonants around it which replace all non-linear memory EIOU while blinking converting a memory and above it reason being is that flash thought memory replacements register all the vowels surrounding BLACK but only A while your eyes are open which triggers constinonts from the light at the point of what you see.B L enters your mind from the point of what you see which replaces the choice of A E I O U as a raised sound and a trigger for a subconcious action which will register directly in your brain.B L becomes non-linear air,a contoled frequency but this should never be as a constinant is a natural projection of sound ,as you scroll your eyes the memory of B L is replaced by A E I O U only this time the vowels are amplified above B L collecting additional constinonts through way of sight eventualy triggering yourself with the letter B L A C K over and over again depending on the surrounding air waves which fluctuate up and down creating a paranoid viscious circle of pure mental torture .When you blink you are constontly reminded of the letter B L A C K and bring with it the surrounding vowels as you asscociated these with other possible word combinations.When you reopen your eyes these possible word combinations start to trigger other subconcious colour alpha tones until all subconcious light creates a subconcious frequency created by exchanging 21 letters of the alphabet with light emissions .The remaining vowels are used to trigger the v2k broadcasters vocal as the more constinonts you hear think and remember the more there vocal raises above them .As you create memorys of your surroundings these can be used for controled triggering using either a live broadcast or triggering for synthetic telepathy

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How v2k becomes voice to skull

V2k broadcasters use spotlight audio technology,the processor converts audible sound(including speech)into millions of ultratones which reflect back to the origonal source enabling directional sound.They use sonar software by cakewalk to broadcast additional tones by way of vowels recorded and repeated vocaly through the spotlight speaker then additionaly through there broadcast which can be c.b radio or internet radio.The additional tones recieve on all known recievers dispercing  them everywhere through loudspeakers(Tv radios mobile phones air)and travel on the very air we breath.The vowel ultratones go undetected as they flood the air within our homes going unoticed by the majority of the population,only to be percieved by the already ill.You and me both know you are paranoid about something otherwise you wouldnt be reading this.V2k starts when you are at the point of paranoia,reason being is when you become paranoid you concentrate on silence to find the solution as to why you feel the way you do.V2k IS concentrated air,a slight rise in sound which only  the ill percieve.Remember vowels are a letter between breaths which happen inbetween the sounds you make while speaking ,when you register v2k you will have thought you have heard voices or indeed has either way your thoughts are projecting to the point of sight.Because you have become so paranoid you have given yourself symptons of mental illness as you further more concentrate on silence which inturn percieves the vowel ultratones ,because this is a subconcious rise in sound it exchanges information with your eyesight movement.So let me illitarate,paranoia becomes a mental illness as you concentrate on the air around you,the vowel ultratones surrounding you are percieved by your subconcious mind causing a connection between your breath and your sight,a vowel has now become a magnet to all you see alphabeticaly,let me remind you we spell at an astronomical speed giving us awarness of self being learning from our subconcious register to colours which helps us form  the words we speak and hear.If you have ever thought you are hearing voices and are reading this chances are you are a v2k target although some of you dont know it yet,when you look around you collect constinonts which trigger your sight(vowels)e.g your breath amplifys your connection to what you see which in turn has constinonts within them,a constinont is the shape your mouth makes when forming sound,as you are not making any sound this becomes the broadcasters trigger.A constinont is now a subconcious search for greater sound which only registers another vowel which is of lesser sound giving the feeling of no escape and a forced way of thinking as the process repeats itself even while sleeping.So now you are caught in a loop that forces you to think which because your paranoid will turn into a search for hidden devices conspiracy theories and all other matters of illness.So let me give you a quick recap,your paranoia becomes a constant search for silence which combines with the vowel ultratones which amplifys the letters you see by way of sight.The volume of air you see will be that in your mind only to pick up constinonts which are a natural movement of creating sound.You think 5 vowels while searching and recieve constinonts by way of colour these exchange with vowels creating sound out of colour.Your left to give yourself a mental illness by exchanging letters of the alphabet into colours then back into the alphabet, the letters B L are rememberd through five vowels triggering them into voices which you cant escape ,these voices could either be yourself or a v2k broadcasters either way theres still no escape.

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Basics of radio

|=---------------------=[ The basics of Radio ]=-------------------------=| |=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=| |=------------------=[ shaun2k2 <shaun at rsc dot cx>  ]=----------------=|  0 - Introduction   0.1 - Technical Terms  1 - Radio Basics   1.1 - Radio Waves   1.2 - Carrier   1.3 - (RF) Frequency Bands   1.4 - Wavelength   1.5 - Transmission   1.6 - Receiving  2 - AM Radio   2.1 - What is AM Radio?   2.2 - Modulation   2.3 - Demodulation   2.4 - Circuits       2.4.1 - Receivers       2.4.2 - Transmitters  3 - FM Radio   3.1 - What is FM radio?   3.2 - Modulation   3.3 - Demodulation   3.4 - Circuits  4 - Misc   4.1 - Pirate Radio   4.2 - Wireless Telephone Tapping   4.3 - Jamming  5 - Conclusion  6 - Bibliography  --[ 0 - Introduction      Ever since our discovery of radio, in around 1902, we have proceeded to utilise it for many different purposes -- from sending others short messages, to transmitting large and critical data sequences to other computer systems.  As time has gone on, as useful a technology as radio is, it is barely noticed anymore.  When most people think of 'radio', they picture a small black device sitting in their car, which they will use to listen to their local radio stations during car journeys.  On the other hand, very few people realise the true usefullness of radio, often forgetting that their cellphones, televisions, satellite TV and alarm systems all too use radio to complete their task on a very regular medium -- radio is not just that boring old thing gathering dust in the corner.      This article is divided up into four parts.  The first part describes the basic theory of radio, and examples to illustrate some of the common day uses of it.  In parts two and three, AM and FM radio details are outlined showing various different circuits to illustrate how these principles can be applied to real-life, functioning circuits.  Section four is a misc. section, presenting some miscellaneous interesting points.  Some electronics knowledge is useful in radio, though not totally necessary.  Most circuits presented here are quite rough, and can be greatly improved upon in many ways.    ----[ 0.1 - Technical Terms  Below is a description of technical terms used throughout the article:   RF          -- Any frequency within the radio spectrum, which can be                used by to transmit and receive radio signals.  Modulation  -- A technique used to package data into a radio signal                which is of use to the destination radio receiver.  AM          -- Amplitude Modulation.  This involves shifting the amplitude                of a radio signal's carrier very slightly in sympathy with                a modulating signal.  FM          -- Frequency Modulation.  FM modulation involves shifting the                frequency of a radio wave's carrier very slightly in                sympathy with a modulating signal.  Receiver    -- Any device which is capable of receiving radio signals                sent by a radio transmitter.  Transmitter -- A device which can transmit radio waves into the                surrounding environment.  Aerial      -- A medium to large piece of wire which is used by either a                radio transmitter or receiver to propagate or detect an                incoming radio signal.  In a radio receiver or transmitter,                an aerial acts as one plate of a capacitor, whilst the other                plate is taken place by the Earth.  Antenna     -- See aerial.  Wireless    -- Refers to any technology which communicates data without the                need for a wired connection.  Most wireless devices, such as                cell phones, televisions, and others use radio, but several                do use technologies such as infrared, which is not covered                here.  Radio wave   -- A radio wave is an 'electromagnetic' wave, most commonly                 containing data to be received by a remote radio receiver.  Oscillator   -- Refers to an electronic circuit which 'oscillates', or                 'vibrates', to complete a certain task.  Oscillators are                 used in radio to transmit radio waves at a given                 frequency -- the rate at which the oscillator oscillates is                 the RF (see RF) at which the wave is transmitted.  Common                 oscillator circuits, also used in this paper, are LC                 oscillator circuits, and crystal-controlled oscillators.  Crystal-controlled oscillator   -- An oscillator circuit whos oscillation frequency is                 controlled by a 'crystal'. See oscillator.  LCoscillator -- An oscillator consisting of a capacitor and an inductor,                 whos frequency of oscillation is controlled directly by the                 capacitor, which is usually variable.  See oscillator.  Capacitor    -- Device which stores current as an electrical field.  Broadcast    -- A term used to describe transmitting radio waves into the                 atmosphere.  Wavelength   -- The physical distance between two waves on the same                 frequency, transmitted successively.  Bands        -- Frequency Bands are a range of frequencies used                 interchangeably or commonly for the same type of technology.                 For example, televisions often use the VHF band.  Frequency    -- Number of cycles per seconds. Frequency can be used to                 describe how often an oscillator oscillates.  Sidebands    -- When modulation of a carrier is applied, two extra                 bands are generated, both slightly higher and lower                  than the carrier frequency, equating from the 'sum and                  difference' of the carrier and audio                 frequency.  These two bands appear at either end of                 the RF carrier, hence the term 'sidebands'.     --[ 1 - Radio Basics  ----[ 1.1 -  Radio Waves      Radio waves, otherwise referred to as 'radio signals', are simply electromagnetic waves.  Radio waves are transmitted by devices called 'radio transmitters' or 'transmitters' for short.  Despite our wide and many uses for radio waves as a whole, we actually known very little about 'radio'.  We do know, however, that radio waves are a form of energy, which act exactly like they have been propagated as any other type of wave we know of. For example, an audio wave.      Radio waves are made up of three things; an electric field, a direction, and a magnetic field.      Despite our underlying ignorance of radio and its properties, we can predict and use its properties to our advantage to undergo a wide variety of different tasks -- and will probably do so for a long time to come.   ----[ 1.2 - Carrier      An 'RF carrier' can be thought of as the part of the radio wave which can be modulated to 'carry' a data signal. An analogy to help with understanding this is to think of turning on a flashlight and pointing it towards a wall.  The light which is seen on the wall is the 'carrier'.      Before and without modulation, the carrier of a radio wave contains no data, and just contains peaks of an RF voltage.                            peak voltage                         ||\\    ///\    //\\                        || \\  //  \\  //  \\                        ||  \\\/    \\\/    \\                               RF carrier       Because sending radio waves with a carrier containing no data would be almost useless, a carrier is 'modulated' to contain data. There are various modulation schemes in wide use, but the two most common schemes are AM (Amplitude Modulation) and FM (Frequency Modulation). These are discussed later.   ----[ 1.3 - (RF) Frequency Bands      As we can gather from listening to a variety of radio stations, different forms of technology use an entirely different 'band' of radio frequencies on which to send and receive their radio signals.      The entire range in which radio signals are transmitted extends from around 30KHz, up to about 30GHz.  This whole range of available RFs (Radio Frequencies) is known as the 'radio spectrum'.  The radio spectrum's range of frequencies, and their concurrent uses are shown in the below table.  +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | Frequency         | Uses                       | Name                | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 30KHz-300KHz      |   Long-wave radio, useful  | Low Frequency (L.F) | |                   |   for long distance        |                     | |                   |   communications           |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 300KHz-3MHz       |   Medium wave, local radio | Medium Freq (M.F)   | |                   |   distant radio stations   |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 3MHz-30MHz        |   Short wave radio         |  High (H.F)         | |                   |   Communications           |                     | |                   |   Amateur radio            |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 30MHz-300MHz      |   FM Radio                 |  Very High (V.H.F)  | |                   |   Police radio             |                     | |                   |   Meteorology Comms        |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 300MHz-3GHz       |   Air Traffic Control      |  Ultra High (U.H.F) | |                   |   TV                       |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 3GHz-30GHz        |   Radar Comms              |  Microwaves (S.H.F) | |                   |   Satellites               |                     | |                   |   Telecommunications (TV & |                     | |                   |   telephone)               |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+       Since certain frequency bands are used to accomodate important communications, such as the VHF band, it became illegal to transmit radio waves at certain frequencies without a license. It was made so because transmission of radio signals at important frequencies could interrupt critical communication, such as communication between police officers with their radio transmitter devices.      All frequencies within the radio spectrum are invisible to humans. Light frequencies which are visible to humans, i.e frequencies which are present in the light spectrum, operate at *much* lower frequencies.   ----[ 1.4 - Wavelength      Wavelength is the physical distance between a peak in one radio wave, to the peak in another radio wave transmitted successively -- on the same RF.  As a general analogy, the wavelength can be thought of as the distance that the peak in a given wave will have travelled in the space of time for one cycle. This can be calculated using the below simple formula.  |\ = V / F  * |\ = lamda   V  = Velocity   F  = Frequency      Using this formula, the wavelength for an example scenario can be calculated, when the RF is 27MHz.  The speed of light is 300 million meters/second, which is therefore the velocity of the electromagnetic wave.  |\ = 300,000,000 / 27,000,000  = 11.11r      Looking at the above calculation, what can be gained? It seems that the wavelength for waves transmitted in the example scenario is 11.11 (recurring) meters, so from this, it can be gathered that a peak in a particular radio wave will have travelled 11.11r meters in the time it took for one oscillation of the transmitting oscillator. But how can we know how long this oscillation period takes? We can calculate this using the formula '1 / f'.  1 / 27,000,000 = 0.0000000370r      This means that within the miniscule time frame of 0.0000000370 (recurring) seconds, the peak within the radio wave should have travelled approximately 11.11 (recurring) meters.      Wavelength might seem quite a useless thing to calculate on its own, but it comes in very useful when it comes to calculating suitable aerial lengths for both radio transmitters and radio receivers. As a rule of thumb, an ideal length for a radio aerial is around 1/2 of the signals wavelength. This can be calculated very easily.  11.11 / 2 = 5.555 (roughly)      From this calculation, we can gain the knowledge that a near ideal radio transmitter/receiver aerial can be constructed to be of around 5.5 meters. Exact precision is not generally critical to the overall operation of the radio transmitter/receiver. For example, where portability of equipment is more of a concern than great efficiency, 1/4, 1/8 or even 1/16 of the wavelength in meters is often used for the length of the radio aerial.  11.11 / 4 = 2.7775 11.11 / 8 = 1.38875 11.11 / 16 = 0.694375      From this little experiment we can see that we can turn a length which is considerably out of question due to portability desires, into a length which is much more suitable, yet efficiency is not affected too much.      This technique is very commonly employed to calculate sensible lengths for radio aerials.  However, other techniques are also employed, especially in the case of satillite TV.  Notice how TV satillite dishes house tiny holes in the body of the dish? These holes are specially sized to ensure that radio waves with wavelengths less than that associated with the desired RFs (3GHz-30GHz) do not create an electrical current in the aerial wire, as suitable radio waves do. Holes based upon the same principle can also be found when looking inside a microwave oven.  ----[ 1.5 - Transmission      Perhaps one of the most difficult concepts to grasp in radio is how radio waves are actually broadcast into the environment. As touched upon previously, radio waves are transmitted using oscillators in electronic circuits, and the rate at which the oscillator oscillates is the frequency at which the radio waves are transmitted.      As an example, we will focus on using an LC tuned oscillator circuit in the radio transmitter circuit.  LC oscillators are made up of an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C).  If we consider how a capacitor stores current, we can come up with the conclusion that it is stored as an electric field between two plates -- these two plates make up the capacitor. During one oscillation (also known as a 'cycle') of the LC tuned circuit, all available current is stored first in the capacitor as an electric field, and then as a magnetic field associated with the LC circuit's inductor.  After a *very* short time period (1/f), the magnetic field is turned back into an electrical current, and begins to recharge the capacitor again.  Because the inductor's magnetic field is beginning to change back into electrical charge, the inductor turns another electrical field into a magnetic field in order to counter-act the change. This continuous cycle of quick changes keeps the current in the LC circuit flowing in the same direction, driven by the current stored in the inductor. When the inductor's charge eventually becomes zero, the capacitor becomes charged again, but with the opposite polarity. After each oscillation (cycle), energy loss has occured, but not all of the energy loss can be accounted for as energy lost as heat from the inductor's coil. Thus, we can gather that some energy has been 'leaked' from between the capacitor's plates, as electromagnetic energy -- radio waves.      If we consider this, we can conclude that the further apart the plates in the capacitor are, the more energy is broadcast ('leaked') as radio waves.  This must mean that if we have a capacitor with plates spaced 1 meter apart, more energy will be broadcast as radio waves than if the capacitor had plates spaced a very small distant apart. By thinking even deeper, we can conclude that to maximise 'leakage' of radio energy, a capacitor is needed in the LC tuned oscillator circuit with plates spaced at quite a distance apart.  It just so happens that for this task, to maximise broadcast of radio waves, the world's largest plate can be used to take the place of one plate of the capacitor -- the Earth!  The other capacitor plate needs just be a suitably lengthed piece of wire, which is an equally common sight -- this piece of wire is known as an 'aerial'!      In real-world radio transmitters, oscillator circuits are used to make a small current 'oscillate' in an aerial wire.  Because of the constant change of energy form in the oscillator circuit, the current oscillating in the length of the wire becomes electromagnetic and is radiated as radio energy.      Back to the length of the aerial in relation to wavelength; this is where the length calculated earlier comes in handy. From the knowledge gained here, we can assume an adapted LC oscillator circuit as below.                  Capacitor           Inductor               ________________             |                )             |                )            ---               )____________  Aerial            ---               )             |                )             |________________)       As a concept, using the adapted LC tuned oscillator circuit above, the transmission of radio waves can be thought of like this; radio waves are generated due to the propagation of an electric current in an aerial wire. It is, as we have learnt, the 'leakage' of electromagnetic energy from between the two plates of the capacitor which causes broadcasting of radio waves.       As oscillations occur in our LC tuned circuit, all available energy is stored in the capacitor, followed by energy (electrical current) not leaked as electromagnetic waves being fed into the inductor.  This whole process measures one oscillation, and once one oscillation is over, the whole process repeats itself again, and each time energy is being lost as radio waves from the acting 'capacitor' (aerial and Earth). Therefore, it is the rate at which the LC circuit is oscillating (the 'frequency') at that determines the frequency at which the radio waves are broadcast at -- thus determining the RF of the radio signals.  ----[ 1.6 - Receiving      The concept of receiving radio signals is based upon almost the opposite of the concepts of transmitting radio waves. In similarity to radio transmitters, radio receivers also use an aerial, but for a totally different purpose; for detecting the radio signals in the environment. As described previously, radio waves are a form of energy, propagated as electromagnetic waves through the air. Thus, when radio signals transmitted by nearby radio transmitters pass the aerial of the receiver, a *tiny* RF alternating current is generated in the aerial wire.  When a signal becomes present in the aerial wire, 'wanted' radio frequencies are 'selected' from the assortment of RF currents in the aerial, using a 'tuned circuit'.      As an example, we'll focus on the LC tuned circuit as in the previous  section, due to the simplicity of this circuit. RF current of the 'wanted' frequency can be selected from amongst the other RFs by use of an LC tuned circuit, which is set to resonate at the frequency of the 'wanted' radio frequency.  This selection is done because the LC tuned circuit has low impedance at any frequencies other than the 'wanted' frequency. Frequencies other than the 'wanted' frequency are prevented from passing through the circuit because they are 'shorted out' due to low impedance of the LC circuit at any other frequency than the resonant frequency (the frequency of the 'wanted' signals).      Following the selection of correct radio frequencies from the other RF signals, the radio receiver will usually amplify the signal, ready for demodulating.  The technique which is adapted by the receiver for demodulating the radio signal into the modulating signal is totally dependant on the type of modulation being used in the received radio wave.  In the case of an AM radio receiver, a selected signal will be 'rectified' and thus demodulated, using a low-drop germanium diode. This process basically turns the alternating RF current back into a direct DC current, which represents the power strength of the AM signal.  Next, the RF component is generally removed by using a capacitor. The output product of this process is a recovered modulating signal which can be fed to a pair of high impedance headphones.  The diagram below represents how the selected RF current is rectified by the diode.                                                          ||\\  //\\ ----------------------|>|--------------- ||\\ //\\   || \\||  \\                                         || \\||  \\   \/\/\/\/\/\/  AM Modulated Carrier  diode                     Modulating signal                                               (RF carrier present)       After being rectified by the diode, the AM radio signal is still not suitable to be fed to an audio output, as the RF carrier is still present. The RF carrier can be removed by using a single capacitor.                                      | | ||\\  //\\  ------------------------| |---------------------  /\  /\ || \\||  \\                         | |                      /  \/  \  Modulating signal                  capacitor          Modulating signal                                                     (RF carrier removed)       The output of the capacitor is a recovered modulating audio waveform which is suitable for passing to an audio output device, such as a set of headphones with a high impedance.      This technique is likely to be the simplest way to create an AM radio receiver, commonly known as the 'crystal set', used by the mass in the 1920s.  Other receivers are more often used to produce a higher quality of audio output, such as TRFs (Tuned Radio Receivers) and Superhetrodyne receivers.      The whole system model of a radio receiver at its most basic level can be thought of as the below diagram.            Modulated Radio Signal (electric current generated in aerial wire by radio wave)                   |                  \|/             Signal amplified                   |                  \|/            Signal demodulated                   |                  \|/           Modulating signal       Although the techniques and components needed to achieve each step of the diagram are different, most receivers stick to this sort of system.  Other types of receivers and their circuits are discussed more indeph in the section they are related to.   --[ 2 - AM Radio  ----[ 2.1 - What is AM Radio?      AM Radio refers to any form of technology which makes use of Amplitude Modulation to modulate the 'carrier' with information. To package a radio wave with often complex signals, the carrier of a radio wave is shifted in power very slightly in sympathy with a modulating audio or data signal. Next to morse code, AM is one of the simplest forms of modulation, and with this, comes its disadvantages.  ----[ 2.2 - Modulation       AM Modulation involves nothing more than shifting the power of a radio wave's carrier by tiny amounts, in sympathy with a modulating signal. Amplitude, as you probably already knew, is just another word for 'power'.       The simplicity of AM modulation can be demonstrated with a simple diagram like the one below.   ||\\    ///\    //\\ || \\  //  \\  //  \\  --->  \  /\  /  --->     \\    \\ ||  \\\/    \\\/    \\        \/  \/            \\ ///\\                                                 \\// \\                                                       RF Carrier            Modulating signal        AM signal        As you can hopefully make out from the diagrams, whenever the modulating signal (the signal which we are modulating) increases in voltage, the amplitude (power) of the RF carrier is increased in sympathy with the modulating signal.  When the voltage of the modulating signal declines in voltage, the opposite of above happens.  After AM modulating the carrier, the signal has usually twice the 'bandwidth' of the original modulating signal.   ----[ 2.3 - Demodulation      When an AM designed radio receives a radio wave, as previously noted, a small RF alternating current is generated in the aerial wire.  Because of the AM modulation of the carrier applied by the sending transmitter, the voltages in the carrier are larger and smaller than each other, but in equal and opposite amounts.  As a result, to recover the modulating signal, either the positive or the negative part of the modulated signal must be removed. In the simplest AM radio receivers, the modulated signal can be 'rectified' by making use of a single germanium low-drop diode.     \\/\/\/\/\  \\  /// //    ---------------------|>|----------------- \\  ///  //   \\// \\/                                                \\// \\//                                                     AM radio signal                  diode         Modulating signal        Here, part of the carrier has been removed, resulting in recovery, or 'rectification' of the modulating signal.      Because the carrier frequency (the RF of the radio wave) is usually significantly greater than the modulating frequency, the RF carrier can be removed from the resultant modulating signal, using a simple capacitor.   \\        //                   |  |  \\  ///  //    ----------------|  |----------------  \  /\  /  \\// \\//                     |  |                   \/  \/   Modulating signal           capacitor             Modulating signal (with RF carrier)                                (without RF carrier)       By exposing the rectified signal to a capacitor, the audio signal (or otherwise data signal) is smoothed, producing a higher quality of audible output.  At this point, the modulating signal is more or less recovered.      Although this technique of AM demodulation can be made to work to a satisfactory level, the vast majority of commercial radio receivers now adopt a design known as 'superhet', which I will explain briefly here.      Superhet receivers are based upon the principle of 'mixing' two signals to produce an intermediate frequency. The diagram illustrates a superhet receivers operation.   Carrier in ---> Tuned circuit  ---> Mixer ---> IF amplifier ---> Detector                (selects correct RF)    |                           |                                       |                           |                                        |                           |                                Local oscillator               Audio Amp                                                                   |                                                                   |                                                                 +--+                                                                 |  |                                                                 +--+                                                                 \__/                                                            As we can see, superhet demodulation is significantly more complex than 'rectification'.  Superhet receiver systems, like the above system diagram, works basically as follows.  First, an RF alternating current becomes present in the circuit, because of the electromagnetic activity around the aerial.  Signals of the correct radio frequency are selected via a tuned circuit, and inputted into one input pin of the 'mixer'.  In the meantime, the other input of the mixer is occupied by the 'local oscillator', which is designed to be oscillating at a frequency just lower than the inputted radio frequency. The output of the mixer is known as the 'Intermediate Frequency' (IF), which is the difference between the local oscillator frequency, and the frequency of the received AM radio signal. Next, the 'IF' is amplified, and passed to an 'envelope detector'. The output of the envelope detector is the modulating audio signal (an AF -- Audio Frequency), which is in turn amplified, and outputted to the user via a loudspeaker or other audio output device.      Since the local oscillator is almost always set to oscillate at a frequency of approximately 465KHz *below* the frequency of the carrier input, the output of the mixer will always be a 'carrier' of 465KHz -- which still carries the modulated information.  After the signal is amplified by the IF amplifier(s) (there can be more than one IF amplifier), the signal is now demodulated by the detector -- which is often just a single diode.  As mentioned above, the modulating signal recovered by the system can be fed to an amplifier, followed by an audio output device.      As well as producing a higher quality of audio signal, superhet receivers also eliminate the need to be able to tune multiple tuned circuits in a TRF (Tuned Radio Receiver).  TRF designs become awkward when it comes to tuning them into different radio frequencies because of the many tuned circuits needed -- superhets overcome this problem as they always 'know' what the collector load will be -- a 465KHz signal. Superhet designs can also be adapted to work with FM radio signals, assuming the 'detector' is changed to a suitable detector for FM signals (i.e phase detector).   ----[ 2.4 - Circuits      Since radio technology is a frequently discussed topic across the Internet, many radio circuit design implementations are readily available, ranging from very simple circuits, to quite complex ones. Here I present some radio related circuits which most people with a bit of electronics knowledge and the right components can build.   ------[ 2.4.1 - Receivers      Discussed above was the historic 'crystal set' radio receiver, which allows anyone with a long enough aerial wire and a few components to listen to AM radio bands.  Below is the basic crystal set radio receiver circuit, which is very easy to construct.       Aerial Wire             D1 *         |            Q1         |               ____|>|__________________         |_____________|/             |          |         |             |\             |          |  _______|_____          |            |          | (             |         |            |          | ( L1         --- C1 *   |        C2 ---         0  high impedance (            ---        |           ---         0  headphones (             |         |            |          | (_____________|         |            |          |         |               |            |          |         |_______________^____________|__________|         |               | (not joined)         |_______________|         |        GND  - C1 should be a variable capacitor to allow the station to tune into   other frequency bands.  - D1 should be a low-drop germanium diode -- non-germanium diodes   won't work.       From previous discussion, we can figure out that the above 'crystal set' AM radio receiver works as follows; incoming radio waves generate a tiny alternating current in the aerial wire, from which 'wanted' radio frequencies are selected, by the tuned LC circuit. Selected current passes through a diode, which 'rectifies' the signals, thus demodulating them. Before the diode, there is a simple transistor, which amplifies the 'wanted' frequency. The only reason for this is to make the quality of sound slightly better. Any remaining RF components are removed using a single capacitor -- this consequently has the effect of smoothing out the signal. The product audio signal is passed to a set of headphones -- these *must* be high-impedance, or nothing audible sounds on the headphones.      As was noted earlier, this type of receiver was used frequently in the 1920s, and gave even newbie electronic enthusiasts of that time the opportunity to build something that would be considered very useful at that time.  To make decent use of the 'crystal set' circuit, around 60-70 turns of wire around a rod of ferrious metal would create a good aerial.      Designs like above are never used in commercial radio receivers anymore. Excluding superhet receivers, TRFs are occasionally used to produce low quality radio receivers. Below is a simple TRF receiver schematic.                    Aerial             |              C5*   C6   +9V            |        ________________________________________            |        |     |    |       )                    |            |        |    ---  ---      )  LC2              |-|            |        |    ---  ---      )                 __| |            |        |     |____|_______)                 | |_|            |        |        |                           |  |   C8           ---  C1   |        |            D1     C7      |  |___| |____0           ---      _|_     Q1_____________|>|________| |_|_|/   | |    0   LC1      |    R1 | |      /                  |     | |   |\ Q2   _________|__     |_|  __|/                   |            |  High impedance   |           )     |  |  |\_____              |            |  headphones   |           )     |  |        |              |            |   |           )     |  |        |              |            |  ---  C2 *    )___| |__|_       |              |            |  ---          )   | |    |      |              |            |   |           )   C3     |      |              |            |   |___________)          |      |    C4        |            |                          |      |_____         |            |                          |      |    |     R4  |-|      R6 |-|                     R2  |-| R3 |-|  ---        | |         | |                         | |    | |  ---        |_|         |_|                         |_|    |_|   |          |           |                      ____|______|____|_________ |___________|                                        0V   - C2 should be a variable capacitor - C5 and C6 should be variable capacitors - Resistors of sensible values should suffice - Capacitors of sensible values should suffice        As in the 'crystal set' receiver, when a radio signal is 'picked up' by the aerial, the proper frequency is selected using the LC tuned circuit.  The signal is passed to a transistor amplifier.  However, this time, the transistor amplifier has a 'tuned collector load', because of the tuned LC circuit (LC2) at the collector leg of the transistor.  Next, the signal is rectified, stored in a few capacitors until enough current has collected, and is eventually fed to the user with the high impedance headphones.  The use of the tuned collector load at the transistor causes for the receiver to be more precise, amplifying only the signals which are at the frequency of LC2's resonant frequency.  As expected, this causes for a higher quality of audio signal to be fed into the users headphones, making this a much better radio receiver.       A few things can be done to improve the above receiver, such as adding yet more tuned amplifiers, and perhaps adding a few more resistors and capacitors for safety and efficiency purposes.    ------[ 2.4.2 - Transmitters      All that we really need to do when designing a simple radio transmitter is keep in mind that we require an oscillator -- either tuned or crystal controlled -- and a series of amplifier circuits which boost our signal. After these stages, all that is left is to make the signals oscillate in the aerial wire.  Below is a simple radio transmitter schematic.                                                                                                                         Aerial                                                                       |                                                                      |   ___________________________________________________________________|  |                        |                 |       |         |      |  |                        |                 |       |         |      |  |                     L1 )                 |       |         |   L3 |  |                        )          R3    |-|   C3 |         |__    ) |-|  R1   Crystal         )                | |     ---        |  |   ) | |_________|_____________)                |_|     ---        |  | C5) |_|        |||            |                 |       |         | ---  )  |                        |_______| |_______|_AM ___|_______|/  ---  |  |                       /        | |         Modulator     |\___|___|  |__________| |________|/         C2                      Q2    |    |  |          | |        |\   Q1                          (PNP)   |    )  |          C1           |                                     ---   )  |                      |-|                                 C4 ---   )  M                      | |  R4                                 | L2 )  |                      |_|                                     |    |  |                       |                                      |    |  |                       |                                      |    |  |_______________________|______________________________________|____|   - TR2 is a PNP transistor - M is a microphone      This circuit works by oscillating at the frequency controlled by the crystal (27MHz would be legal in the UK), amplifying the signal with tuned collector loads at the transistor (TR1), and then by radiating the signal off as radio waves by oscillating the signal in the aerial wire. Amplitude modulation is added to the signal by varying the gain of the transistor driver, by connecting it to the output of a microphone. The above circuit is quite inefficient, and is likely to produce low quality signals, but it can be used as a starting point to building a simple AM radio transmitter. It's probably illegal to operate the above circuit on frequencies requiring a license, so some countries *require* the circuit to be crystal controlled on a 'model radio' RF.  One improvement to be made on the schematic is to amplify the output of the microphone before feeding it to the transistor driver.      Possible devices which could apply the AM modulation are audio amplifiers, or even op-amps.  An audio amp following the oscillator would produce a higher quality, stronger signal, but would also provide power gain (i.e amplitude gain), in sympathy with the audio signal produced by the microphone.  This gain of amplitude due to the audio amp has essentially applied Amplitude Modulation of the carrier signal, because the power of the signal has been altered according to the inputted audio signal (at the microphone).  An ordinary op-amp could be used in a similar way, but by substituting the non-inverting input pin with a suitable power supply.  Essentially, this would cause for an outputted gain from the op-amp, according to the audio signal, because the two inputs to the op-amp are compared, as such.    --[ 3 - FM Radio  ----[ 3.1 - What is FM radio?      FM radio just means any form of technology which makes use of radio with FM modulated signals. To modulate a radio wave's carrier with information, FM transmitters shift the frequency of the carrier very slightly, to be in sympathy with a modulating signal.   ----[ 3.2 - Modulation      FM modulation consists of little more than shifting a radio wave's carrier frequency very slightly in sympathy with a modulating signal's frequency.  Modulation of an example audio signal is shown in the figures below.   ||\\    ///\    //\\ || \\  //  \\  //  \\  --->  \  /\  /  --->       ||\\  /\\  // ||  \\\/    \\\/    \\        \/  \/              ||\\ //\\ //                                                   ||\\// \\//                                                       RF Carrier            Modulating signal        FM signal      The diagrams show that when the frequency of the modulating signal increases, so does the given carrier frequency, and the opposite when the modulating signal's frequency decreases. This is shown in the FM signal diagram by the bands being spaced widely apart when the modulating signal frequency is increasing, and more closely together when the modulating signal's frequency is decreasing.   ----[ 3.3 - Demodulation      When an FM modulated carrier signal is detected by the receiver's aerial wire, in order to recover the modulating signal, the FM modulation must be reversed.      Most modern FM radio receivers use a circuit called the 'phase-locked loop', which is able to recover FM modulated radio signals by use of a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator), and a 'phase detector'. Below is the system diagram of a PLL suitable for use in FM radio receivers.       FM signal in -------------> Phase  ---------------                                 Detector             |                                   |                  |                                   |                  |                                   |                  |                                   |                  |                                  VCO                 |                                    |__________________|                                                      |                                                      |                                                      |                                                      |                                                      |                                             Modulating signal                                                    out       The above PLL is able to recover the modulating signal by having one input to a phase detector as the modulated carrier, and the other input as a VCO oscillating at the frequency of the RF carrier. The phase detector 'compares' the two frequencies, and outputs a low-power voltage relative to the difference between the two 'phases', or frequencies. In essence, the outputted voltage will be relative to the frequency by which the carrier's frequency was shifted during modulation by the transmitter.  Therefore, the output of the PLL, known as the 'phase error', is the recovered modulating signal. In addition to being outputted from the small system, the voltage is also given to the VCO as 'feedback', which it uses to 'track' the modulation.  Acting upon the feedback received, the frequency of oscillation is altered accordingly, and the process is repeated as necessary.      In the past, less efficient and reliable circuits were used to demodulate FM radio signals, such as the 'ratio detector'. Although the 'ratio detector' is less sophisticated than PLL methods, a functioning ratio detector circuit is actually a little more complex than PLLs.      It should be noted that superhet receivers, touched upon a little earlier, can also be used as FM radio receivers, but their 'detectors' are different to that of an AM superhet -- for example, a PLL circuit or ratio detector discussed here could be used in conjunction with a superhet receiver to make an FM radio. This is the method which is actually adopted by most commercial radio receiver manufacturers.  ----[ 3.4 - Circuits   ------[ 3.4.1 - Transmitters      The same general principles apply to FM radio transmitters as they do to AM radio transmitters, except that information must be modulated in a different way.  In AM radio transmitters, the carrier frequency is more or less always constant.  However, in FM transmitters, the whole principle is to alter the carrier frequency in small amounts. This means that a tuned oscillator circuit is not appropriate, because we need to alter the frequency accordingly, not transmit at one static frequency.  The method used to overcome this problem is discussed a little later. A simple FM transmitter schematic diagram is presented below.                                                                       Aerial                                                                        |                                                                        |                                                                        |    ____________________________________________________________________|   |                               |                 |    |      |      |   |                               |                 |    |      |      )   |                               )                |-|  --- C3  |      )   |  R1                      L1   )             R3 | |  ---     |_ C4  )  |-|                              )                |_|   |      | |    )  | |                              )                 |    |      | ---  |  |_|               |   Crystal    |         C2      |    |      | ---  | L2   |_______________|||_____________|___________| |___|____|____|/   |   |   |                              /            | |             |\___|___|    |____________| |_____________|/                                      |   |            | |             |\  Q1                         Q2       |   |                              |                                     |   |            C1                |                                     |   M                             |-|                                    |   |                             | | R2                                 |   |                             |_|                                    |   |                              |                                     |   |______________________________|_____________________________________|       When audio signals are produced by the microphone, current carrying audio frequencies are amlified, and are used to modulate the radio wave.  Since the microphone does this all for us, there is no need to use modulation modules, ICs, or other technology.  In situations where an elecret microphone is not available to do the modulation for us, a varactor diode can be used to vary the capacitance in an oscillator circuit, depending on the amplitude of a modulating signal.  This varies the oscillation frequency of the oscillator circuit, thus producing FM modulation.    --[ 4 - Misc  ----[ 4.1 - Pirate Radio      Pirate Radio stations are simply just radio stations ran by individuals who are not licensed amateur radio enthusiasts.  Although radio is actually a natural resource, it has been illegal for a significant amount of time in some countries to transmit radio waves on certain frequencies.  Although transmitting radio signals on certain frequencies (around 27MHz) is legal in places like the UK, strict FCC regulations kick in, almost limiting the threshold to useless.  Because of this limitation, radio enthusiasts all around the globe see fit to set up pirate radio stations, which they use for their enjoyment, playing their favourite music tracks to the 'public', and for a breeding ground for aspiring DJs.  Some 'pirate radio' stations keep within the FCC terms, by transmitting at low-power. These types of stations are often referred to as 'free radio', or 'micropower stations'.      The legality of pirate radio stations is questionable, but varies from country to country.  In some European Countries, you can be arrested for just owning an unregistered transmitter.  In Ireland, prosecution rarely takes place if registered radio stations are not affected, but it is still illegal.  The US allows transmission of radio signals at *microscopic* power, making the limitations almost useless for unlicensed radio enthusiasts, thus causing them to resort to pirate radio.      Contrary to popular belief, setting up a pirate radio station is not necessarily a difficult task.  At the minimum, someone wanting to setup a pirate radio station would need the following pieces of equipment:  - Stereos, CD Players, Microphones, etc. - Audio Amp - Audio Mixer - Transmitter - Aerial      Stations using only the above equipment can sometimes sound quite crude, and might interfere with other legal radio stations.  To avoid this, a 'compressor' can be used, which also limits the noise created by sudden loud noises in the background.      Although any of the example transmitters in this article probably wouldn't be sufficient enough to transmit music audio signals over the air, but they could be used as a starting point to building your own, more efficient kit.  Additionally, FM and AM radio kits can be purchased, which anyone with a soldering iron can build.      The length and height of the antenna depends entirely on how far the radio signals need to be transmitted.  By reading the previous sections, some information on getting a correctly sized aerial can be gained.  For example, a quick and dirty aerial for an AM pirate radio station could be around 15-20 feet tall.      To avoid being busted, it is probably a good idea to stay within the legal power limits.  Otherwise, a Direction Finding device used by the authorities could easily track down the exact location of the transmitter.    ----[ 4.2 -  Wireless Telephone Tapping      'Beige boxing' has long been the easiest and most exploited way to tap telephones, interrupt on neighbours conversations, and use enemies phone lines to make long distance calls to your friend in Australia. However, since beige boxing requires the phreak to lurk around like a ninja, a safer method can be used, which doesn't require you to be physically close to the target phone line.      As expected, audio signals on a target phone line can be transmitted as  radio signals at an arbitrary frequency, and be received by any phreak with  an FM radio receiver.  Although this concept is not new, it serves as an  interesting and useful project for radio newbies to try out.  Below is a  simple FM phone bug transmitter circuit.                    __________________________________________________________                   |                    |                                    |                   |                    |                                    | IN (green) ___.___|_______            |-|                                   |               |   |       |           | |                                   |               |  /\  LED  |           |_|                                   |               |  ---     | |           |___| |      op-amp                  |                |   |   C1 | |           |   | |---|\                         |               |   |       |__________|/      ____| >------- Aerial          | IN (red) _____|___|                  |\ _____|___|/                         |               |   |                    |     |   |                          |                 |   |                    |     |   |                          | OUT (green) __|   |                    (     |   |                          |                  /\                    (     |  /\  varactor                |                  ---                   (     |  ---                         |                   |                    (     |   |                          | OUT (red) ________|____________________|_____|___|__________________________|   - inductor should be about 8 turns of wire - aerial should be about 5 inch long       By interchanging the varator with a crystal, or by using a variable capacitor, the frequency band on which the bug transmits line activity could be changed accordingly.  The varactor making up part of the oscillator circuit is intended to alter the frequency of oscillation, depending on the audio signal inputted from the green wire of the telephone line.  The varactor diode can be thought of as an electrically variable capacitor, which in this case alters its capacitance in sympathy with the audio frequency on the telephone line -- causing for change of oscillation frequency, and thus frequency modulation.       The following op-amp provides additional strength to the signal, in an attempt to avoid a weak, unreliable signal.  For user-friendly purposes, the LED connecting to the red wire of the line pair should illuminate when a signal is present on the line.      The above circuit can be modified to be made more efficient, and a longer aerial is an obvious way of lengthening the range of transmission.  If a phreak was to contruct and use a device like this, all they would need is an FM radio to tune into the correct frequency.  There are much better designs than the minimalistic one above -- if a practical FM telephone bug is required, many plans are available.   ----[ 4.3 - Jamming      Technically, all it takes to carry out 'radio jamming' is to transmit noise at a desired frequency.  For example, if a person in the UK were to transmit RF noise at 30MHz+, police radio communications could possibly disrupted.  Although the principles are mostly the same, there are several different types of jamming.  - modulated jamming   This consists of mixing different types of modulation, and   transmitting the results at a desired radio frequency.  This is   designed to make receiving legimate radio signals hard or next to   impossible.  - CW (continuous wave)   CW jamming only involves transmitting a consistant carrier frequency   once tuned into a RF frequency/band you want to jam.  This again makes   receiving desired radio signals particuarly hard.  - Broadband   Broadband jammers spread Gaussian noise across a whole band of audio   frequencies, blocking legimate audio signals from easy receival.       A basic radio transmitter is easily modifiable, by adding a noise generator, to successfully jam arbitrary frequency bands.  Many other types of radio jammers exist, and their details are readily available on the World Wide Web.   --[ 5 - Conclusion      Radio is an extremely useful technology, which is at least as old as the atom.  But we are only just beginning to exploit its full usefullness in even new and up and coming technology, and probably will do for the next few hundred years.      As we've discovered, contrary to popular belief, employing the use of radio in electronic circuits isn't at all as complicated as one would think.  Because of this, the use of radio and be both used and exploitfully abused -- only a few basic principles need to be understood to make use of this wonderful technology.  Although the surface has only been scratched, and way forward is open.
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Handler is active on FFCHS

I posted the name of my handler - or one of them - on my blog, and got to thinking about how our "relationship" progressed.  It was the classic narcissist play (yes, I was played, darned empath that I am):  honeymoon, demeaning, and disposal.  During the demeaning phase, he tried to make me discount the feelings and observations I had in regard to my DEW attacks and the gangstalking, noise campaign, etc.  He called me "crazy" and "paranoid" often, and I felt the need to assert the fact that I'm not any crazier than HE is!  So if you happen to be listening to one of the podcasts, usually on the Saturday night conference calls, and if he's on and participating (James Lico), please disregard any assertions by him that refer to me (my real name's not Sam, and he may mention me by name) and our time together.  This is the guy that goes around wearing 6 mil. visqueen, asserting that they shoot poison at him with microwave guns (which isn't happening - think about it:  he says they can pinpoint a ray at a tiny microscopic piece of poison that's been planted on a wall or carpet-anywhere-and shoot it at you with precision.  It's just another thing to make you so scared and feel so hopeless in fighting this crap - it's used to demoralize us even more than they do).   During the "honeymoon" phase, he dragged me from motel to motel, washing walls at each one to get rid of the poison - that's how he got me to quit my job, by thinking that my sister had planted poison all over her own house and they were shooting it at me (I did feel microwaves or electromagnetic attacks at her house though).  Don't believe it for a minute!  Also, unless you are chipped, they have to be fairly close to you to hit you with the microwaves.  In other words, it isn't being done by satellite!  That's ANOTHER thing perps/handlers use to make you feel that you have no control over it.  You do!  Well, you at least have some...



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Help me help you

You all want to know how its possible,some hear voices others hear voices and see things and others are just paronoid to the point of searching for a reason.I know what v2k broadcasters use to do voice to skull,i know what there set ups look like and i do have the right answers,trouble is no one reads these blogs and even if they did you wouldnt understand my exsplanations.sight triggers there sentences ,i have exsplained this before but no one cares,they use spotlight audio technology and still no one cares,they use ultrasound and infra red aswell as exchanging your subconcious attraction to colours for there words.No one cares as you all have your own ideas.I am right you are all wrong!its not goverments or spys or any other people asscociated along them paths,its normal(if you can call it that)people from everyday life,they could even be your neighbour.These people through using spotlight audio which creates ultrasound for directional use have found a way of manipulating the waves it creates by using the electromagnetic spectrum(uv)They exchange letters of the alphabet for subconcious colour having you spell what you see to start off a trigger.For instance if i had a lcd digital video camera with the letters aeioubl displayed on screen while filming a television set to recieve the recording you would have an endless repeat of what you veiwed(in other words a picture of the television you were recording would have another picture of a television and so on and so fourth,remember the letters aeioubl are projected on screen but first have to be projected from the lcd video recorder.this will reach the television as three mega pixel emissions which are red green and blue(primary colours)which you can see if you go up realy close to your television,infact i am going no further as i know no one will believe me or read this,i cannot tell you how its done without you losing intrest,it takes too long and is far more complicated than whats written if antones intrested in how its done just leave me a comment as im realy fed up with bashing my head against a brick wall.Spotlight audio is the only processor in the world that can be bought legaly and used by members of the public.

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Getting Ready To Go To A Shelter

I told my brother  today that I will be leaving to go to the local shelter/halfway house.  The real reason I want to leave isn't the one I told him.  I told him that it wasn't working out here, that I felt like a burden.  He didn't argue with me, which tells me they really don't love me or care for me as they said.  They don't give a flying eff about me.  They'll never believe that I was manipulated into behaving in a way that would get me to the point I am. 

I also told my son I can't bear to see or talk to him (he was involved in gaslighting me with my sister Janice, and poisoned items in a suitcase before I left her house).  He pretended to cry, and also pretended that he didn't remember telling me a couple years ago that he wished I wasn't his mom, that he wished that one of my sisters was his mom.  Just more bs gaslighting.  The reason I told him I couldn't bear to talk to him anymore is because right after I talked to him and started getting upset and missing him, the auditory harassment began again.  It had stopped for 2 days - I'd found a way to become totally at peace and relaxed, despite repeated attempts by family and other gangstalkers to startle me and get me upset.  I can't share what the trick is because it wouldn't help anyone else in the world.  Anyway, after leaving messages on my son's cell phone for several days and not getting any response, I believe he was told to answer my call so I would get upset again.  And lo and behold!  I got upset, and they were able to re-initiate the auditory stuff.  So it I am going to survive I have to shut those feelings down.  And I'm finding it easier and easier to do.  I'm sorry that I have been forced to give up my son's love.  But he left me no choice when he chose to participate in my abuse.  I won't sacrifice myself for love that isn't real.

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v2k triggersOnce alphabetical ultra tones are converted into a subconcious trigger for BLACK alpha sight spells out what you see at the speed of thought.
ABALAAA 5 recorded mannerisms of AEIOU raising pitch each time
EBELEEE there are 26 points of sight which attract the vowel tone conversions
IBILIII they work the same as your vocal chords by vibrating clashes of pulsars
OBOLOOO creating air waves from within you to the point of sight triggering the first
UBULUUU constonants which form the word BLA .the CK is what the v2k
broadcasters use for triggering as a constinants are now a subconcious
action.The victim does not spell the word BLACK it only recognises the words BLA as the CK exchanges words for colour,these two letters are the basis of light speech.The continuous static replaces our subconcious actions as the victim searches for BLA the CK is in the mind before the vowels as a subconcious trigger,while on the other hand the v2k broadcaster uses static light to trigger

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My web pages about Gangstalking, TI, ST, MC

This site was created to provide information on psychological harassment and its many forms.

It reveals the psychological harassment and other psychological manipulations used to target individuals (Individual tzv.Targeted - targeted individually). Information that is published on this site draw from various sources around the world.


My story

 am one of the people who know firsthand what it's mind control (V2S - Voice to Skull and ST - Synthetic telepathy) and was the victim of gang stalking and harassment but diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenic. Those of us who suffer with hearing voices (V2S) from an external source (ST) or failure of our own brain come a miserable and lonely way to go. It is difficult to convey the horror of having to constantly listen to foreign ideas and words that are offensive, negative and derogatory. But for victims of mind control like me, it's a double nightmare in the sense that there is no relief through all the standard treatments or medications. Did you know that you are being harassed, but you can not bring about any hard evidence. Some of us like me, had to undergo forced publicity without their knowledge and sensory experiences that are unwelcome and painful. It's as if we were available in every sense of the word demonic entities from trying to suck all the joy from every moment of our lives and yet keep alive. Our suffering lasts through the years, and it could be likened to an unfortunate existence of quasi-often separated from "normal" world as a whole. I once looked at himself in such a way that I was imprisoned on a small island, where my only contact with the outside world were periodic drives passersby in a small boat from which the only thing to me ever got was a wave of it as they passed. Otherwise, my company and I've got people that somehow I keep a few people with me about this issue ever speak or listen to me and say what they think about me now, I'm crazy because we were friends for several years. Another group of people are also more or less without their own opinion and identify with it that I'm deranged paranoid schizophrenic. Some of them I hear in my head and there are also those whom I loved and trusted them more than anything and what I got was belittling and insulting me or dropping, that I say bullshit. The last group of people who are in his personal life and I hear you hit your head is in either of their voices and know or reproduced according to their interpretation are the ones who decide when this hell will end and who give me different questions and examine my behavior and thoughts to various stimuli and their reakce.Jsem one of the people who know firsthand what it's mind control (V2S - Voice to Skull and ST - Synthetic telepathy) and was the victim of gang stalking and harassment but diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenic. Those of us who suffer with hearing voices (V2S) from an external source (ST) or failure of our own brain come a miserable and lonely way to go. It is difficult to convey the horror of having to constantly listen to foreign ideas and words that are offensive, negative and derogatory. But for victims of mind control like me, it's a double nightmare in the sense that there is no relief through all the standard treatments or medications. Did you know that you are being harassed, but you can not bring about any hard evidence. Some of us like me, had to undergo forced publicity without their knowledge and sensory experiences that are unwelcome and painful. It's as if we were available in every sense of the word demonic entities from trying to suck all the joy from every moment of our lives and yet keep alive. Our suffering lasts through the years, and it could be likened to an unfortunate existence of quasi-often separated from "normal" world as a whole. I once looked at himself in such a way that I was imprisoned on a small island, where my only contact with the outside world were periodic drives passersby in a small boat from which the only thing to me ever got was a wave of it as they passed. Otherwise, my company and I've got people that somehow I keep a few people with me about this issue ever speak or listen to me and say what they think about me now, I'm crazy because we were friends for several years. Another group of people are also more or less without their own opinion and identify with it that I'm deranged paranoid schizophrenic. Some of them I hear in my head and there are also those whom I loved and trusted them more than anything and what I got was belittling and insulting me or dropping, that I say bullshit. The last group of people who are in his personal life and I hear you hit your head is in either of their voices and know or reproduced according to their interpretation are the ones who decide when this hell will end and who give me different questions and examine my behavior and thoughts to various stimuli and their responses.


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The truth!

V2k broadcasters use spotlight audio(holosonics)by way of converting speech within the ultrasonic range amplified by linear sound.The spotlight audio converts audible sound into ultratones which disperse through the airwaves(using cb and other communication methods)picking up on all known recievers(including the fcc rule)dispersing them everywhere within our homes,these go undetected!let me mention that v2k suffers go through the exact same process as a legitimate mental patient only to be separated by triggering.Triggering is linear compressed speech exchanged with natural subconcious actions which are are amplified by your illness, further more by the ultra tone conversions which combine within you e.g breath.This is your very first subconcious action as a vowel is a letter between breaths , which combine with the perpitrators second person gramma(and your own gramma)as your thoughts now begin to project from within you to the point of sight.Sight is an important factor as it keeps there broadcast continuous by having the air inbetween you and what you see amplified by linear sound at the same time as amplifying there broadcast which now exchanges your vowels with there constonants (which are spelt by way of sight)combining sight(a subconcious action)with distance(solids).Triggering can now take place as the broadcaster plays commands and such likes using streams of words sentences without vowels as this reaches our minds on the nearest scale.Because we now hear on this level it goes undetected to everybody else ,and because of this the broadcaster can say anything live! on the top of triggers.Our thought projection of vowels and constinonts exchange with theres in the way of above mentioned.There are countless victims over a vast area giving way for fantasists to second guess what were thinking as we have no option but to hear. There broadcast is returned back to them by time and distance causing an echo which acts as a vibration which in turn attracts light from there lcd source, this will be visions in negative as this lighting attracts the subconcious mind .(black and white).We are now dealing with holosonics!

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use spotlight through cb and or terrestrial(tv1)vowels are a letter between breaths so when they are converted into ultratones they pick up on recievers despersing them eveywhere through start to think your hearing therefore becoming paranoid,the vowels you think while searching are combined with the emissions already around you which i exsplained above.This when combined projects your thoughts by having your sights connection to what you see range the distance of there broadcast,remember you spell what you see at an astronomical speed which gives you awarness of self being.genraly used remote infrared sign systems recieves on all transmitters.these can be used by design to communicate with the recievers complying.(these become infrared audible sign recievers)the basic speech messages shall then be frequency modulated at 25 khz with a + - 2.5 khz deviation and shall have a infra wavelength from 850 950 nannometers.the recievers now shall produce a 12 decibel signal plus noise to noise ratio with a 1khz tone at again +-2.5 deviation of 25khz sub carrier.95%of what we hear is our own projected thoughts which includes memorys,imagination feelings ect.because we hear voices they are foreign to us,meaning they come across as a threat as we do not know who they are where there from and why me?!just been watching the effects of other victims been tortured by way of ultrasonic.the reason many of you think that there are hidden implants in you is because you are surrounded by ionide,it is within you and aronund you and is attracted to other metals especialy silver(which is how uri gellar bends spoons)it is radio active and halogenic and is also attracted to moisture just like in a plug in air freshner,you then have a nervous reation to this and naturaly rub the reas causing friction which like the air freshner charges the ions attracting it to other metals,as you move it triggers your perpitrators broadcast by having you answer yourself(which is natural because it is in a foreign voice)adding to the torment.the best advice i can give is to lipread forcefully your thoughtsand ask a question and you will discover that your thoughts will be projected and will be exchanged for a foreign voice which in turn will answer your question in the most extraordinary way.keep at it especialy at the worst of times,you will realise that you have a voice and can interact with forget also you have your own imagination that will also be exchanged for a foreign voice and will interact with the thoughts you project.i cannot stress enough that the broadcasters use the same process as they too project there thoughts .they use visual alpha light emissions,the reason it is so difficult to prove is because sight triggers there imagination and yours gets stimulated in the worse possible is synthetic telepathy.why us every one keeps askin,the answer is simple.we had a mental illness to begin with just not diagnosed.weve always been able to project our own thoughts using linear sound,"nice weather isnt it"been an example.we have all been under pressure at some time through our journey to actualy hearing them its just that we cant except its not our selfs plus second person grammer which comes from a foreign voice and this is natural,we grow up learning communication in all the right ways to make us who we are.v2k broadcasters know this .the perps are cb users,they meet there perfect match then take it gets taken away for us to hear.i have been no where near hell but has seen it,so there you go without us there will never be any diffrence between me and a genuinely ill person as at the minute no one cares apart fom us.

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this is what i forgot about no one mentioned it and where tryIng to fix it. saw the movie the cop used some people were involved in this now thousands may be. they are using this to kill people and destroy others. the people are using fake voices and getting others to attack people. this is what needs to be stopped. see people have been doing this for years. they tryed to run a program it needs a antivirus. some is programming and other parts are people changing voices tryng to kill pople not all are americans. others are hackng people and trying to kill there enemies with the fake voices there attacking there own this is what they started im trying to get it fixed they need programers to fix it all.

some people used hacks it's jigsaw from the movie a cop that was firedput it in chip[s this is how they tricked many people into and trickthem into defending themself the presidant and others will not listed towhat's going on right now they deny my email. this came from a firedcop he is launching a war becouse he got fired im tryng to fix chips andpeople are helping and others are not stoping the attack they lied andtricked people to defend themself. these guys are in a lot of places atonce. they tryed to do this from othes chips. there are DNA chipsinvolved and other things also. this cop started the jigsaw in 2005. forsome reason. they started this thing they were fired one cop could havesetup the other they said they were going to kill people i made lots ofattempts to warn the government and hey never listened. i was notinvolved in 911. but i defended myself. they esclated thigs and used myand my wifes name like others the whole country is fucked up. wheretrying to fix it now. others need to fix chips and get rid of the badprograming. the 911 thing could have been a chip hack. ron paul may notbe involved but hundreds o thousands of people are and it was like themovie saw they used people that hate each oher to set them up. i recallwhat the fired police did just the other day im sending the story toprint. and the USA may have to be fixed or destroyed. this is all i knowabout what's happening. someone got into proples chips and fucked themup my story you can find here and my web page tells a tail of what hadto be done. we are trying to get the involvment of human rights and fixit. no one will respond. this is all peole that had reasons to do thingsto others. they tryed to make others fight back the cop started thisstuff he knew chips. then others got involved and they need to bedeprogramed or the chips need to be destroyed. many are fighting to stopit others keep putting it back in chips. they blame others and somehate others and some know others and there are tryng to use voices inheads to lie about who they are to get others to attack
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