V2K (28)


I found most if not all of the information in this post at the following online bitchute link which is called 'THE 5TH OF NOVEMBER THE MOVIE EXPOSING NWO REMOTE NEURAL MONITORING - TRUTHTAINMENT TV NETWORK'

Nano electrodes and nano sensors and other nano technology has been introduced into our brains and bodies by inhalation, ingestion and injection and sometimes by other means. Some of that nano technology travels to the smallest capillaries in our brains and become embedded close to our neurons. Remote Neural Monitoring operatives use directed energy to send signals to the electrodes which are embedded close to the neurons in our brains in ways which stimulate those neurons in order to in turn partially control the behaviour of the individuals who they are targeting.
The remote neural monitoring operatives have conducted experiments on unwilling victims over many decades to the extent that they can now partially control movement, sound, vision, sensations, emotions, beliefs and many other aspects of human beings simply by stimulating various sections of their brains by wireless means over vast distances while they themselves remain unidentified by the victims.
Neuro scientists and remote neural monitoring operatives can stimulate the brains of large groups of people at the same time due to the use of pre-programmed algorithms. They wirelessly connect millions of men and women to their computer control system and then they sometimes send them all the same signal to the same part of the brain of the recepients at the same time, thereby turning that large group into a hive mind. This has been recognised by the fact that those who live in some suburban communities can be manipulated to all mow their gardens at the exact same time on the same day. Another example of hive mind behaviour was when all members of governments hysterically convinced their constituents to accept an untested vaccine for the purposes of treating a virus which was never identified or isolated.
Many people throughout the world can not see anything wrong with the way the world is being run because they have been programmed very heavily to abide by hive mind programming.
Many evil doers who work in remote neural monitoring use their technology to amplify all self-destructive urges like smoking cigarettes, over-eating, drinking alcohol, gambling, sexual promiscuity, over-spending, eating junk food, and taking illegal drugs because those who are caught up in self-destructive behaviour are easier to control and eventually enslave. However, they can not amplify self-destructive urges if we never begin them in the first place. If you currently have any false beliefs the remote neural monitoring operatives will often amplify them because it is much easier to control those who believe in superstitions and hoaxes than to control those who align with logic and rationality.
Crystals of magnetite are magnetic and they react strongly to magnetic fields. Crystals of magnetite are found in the brains of humans, animals and insects. Because of the magnetitie in their brains and also because of the magnetic field of the earth, animals and insects such as homing pigeons, bees, trout and whales are able to sense, direction, altitude and location which enables them to navigate. Every human brain contains an average of seven billion magnetite crystals. Human induced electromagnetic noise could become a problem for animals and insects.
Fusion centres were created after the September 11th, 2001 emergency in New York City. When politicians had their activities investigated they were found to produce irrelevant, useless and inappropriate reports and no crimes have ever been stopped because of their activities. They are also a drain on the tax payer, an invasion of privacy and they are being used to help create a totalitarian state in the United States.
Because all parts of our brains and bodies are now embedded with nano technology including nano electrodes, nano bio-sensors and other nano material, that nano material is being used to send and receive signals wirelessly from remote locations. When someone speaks a word either out loud or silently to themselves they generate muscular activity by doing so. Then, the electrodes which have become embedded underneath their chins pick up the signals which correspond with that muscular activity and those signals are transmitted to an ear piece receivers being worn by Remote Neural Monitoring operatives where they are automatically translated into the words which were spoken. The Remote Neural Monitoring operatives can then respond to the information being received by means of microwaves as follows:- The human brain is an electrical organ which is capable of reacting to electrical signals. Microwaves are also electrical so one can encode signals on microwaves and then send them to a brain. The microwave induced vibration goes directly to the inner ear where it gets converted to electrical impulses again enabling the recepient to hear the response by that means. There are many other methods of sending and receiving messages without anyone else being aware of it occurring and those methods have been scientifically patented in the past five decades. Such methods could be used by criminals to groom children without the awareness of their parents so parents should inform themselves about currrent scientific capabilities for that reason.
By this means and others private messages can be sent to others without public awareness.
I found all of the above information at the following online bitchute link which is called 'THE 5TH OF NOVEMBER THE MOVIE EXPOSING NWO REMOTE NEURAL MONITORING - TRUTHTAINMENT TV NETWORK'
I highly recommend you watch the above linked video because I have not included all of the information which I found on it in the above post. In my opinion, we have so much nano technology in our bodies and brains now that unknown others can wirelessly remote control us like mechanical robots if they wished or they can torture us by wireless remote means while remaining unknown to us. This has turned them into megalomaniacs because they use their powerful weapons on whoever they wish with no accountability. I enclose the following possible solutions. Ban all chemtrail spraying of the skies over our heads. Stop adding chemicals to the public water supply. Many people recommend that we take either borax or chlorine dioxide in very small quantities in order to eliminate the nano technology from our bodies and brains. We can not allow Remote Neural Monitoring operatives to enslave us while there are endless solutions available to free ourselves from their partial enslavement.


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Human bodies generate and electric current which emits and electromagnetic frequency which can be decoded by signal intelligence equipment into what we think, do and say. Signal intelligence staff and others can then reply to our thoughts and words in real time, even over vast distances. I am being subjected to what is known as remote neural monitoring combined with remote neural manipulation where my thoughts and words are being monitored and replied to in real time. My muscles are being forceably moved against my will and some of them can now be held and controlled against my will. All of this is being conducted on me against my will and without my permission. I have informed the Irish police who are known as the Gardai but they did not believe me and they subsequently sent me for psychiatric evaluation.
I have included here some of what the unknown remote neural monitoring staff have been saying to me in the past few days as follows:-
"Stop asking us questions".
"She doesn't have a requirement for a fridge freezer." (My fridge freezer broke down and I was considering what I would purchase in order to replace it.)
"What did she eat now".
"She shouldn't be eating so many eggs."
"We don't want to send the intense pain until such time as we control the body."
"She uses the toilet too often."
"Unsubscribe her from the internet."
"I will take her credit card off her because of that manovure." (I gave the details of my cash card to a local supplier because I get goods from them on a regular basis and now I do not need to repeatedly give them the details of my cash card at every transaction. Those unknown others who are attempting to exert total control over my life from an unknown remote location appeared to be angry at my actions because they are now no longer in a position to dictate what food I purchase because they they do not now have access to my card).
"You wouldn't be able to kick me because I would control your leg muscles." ( Those who speak to me from a distance while remaining anonymous cowards often threaten to come to my home and to move in with me in order to control all aspects of my life. I am terrified of this ever happening so I informed one of them that if he ever came to my home I would kick him. ( I am paraphrasing because those were not my exact words because I also used swear words.)
Those who communicate to me by this means demand that I answer them respectfully and that I am obedient to their dictates which I never am. However, they have informed me that some day in the future they will force me to be respectful and obedient to them because in the future they claim that they will have more control over my body to the extent that they would be able to paralyse me if I was disobedient and they even told me that if I could not tolerate their control over me that I would not even be able to commit suicide because they would freeze my body if I ever attempted to kill myself. I have a friend who is also being subjected to similar experiences to me and she has in fact tried to kill herself only to find that her arm was remotely frozen into a state of paralysis by her unknown controllers when she tried to carry out the act of killing herself.
There may be an easy solution for this. Take chlorine dioxide or any oxygen therapy to get rid of the what is known to be injectable nano technology from your body and brain. Please share this information widely especially with scientists and government officials. Because of the fact that a wireless crime is being committed against me and because I have no recourse to justice I am enclosing my name and address here. My name is Gretta Fahey aka Margaret Fahey and my postal address is Newbrook, Claremorris, Co. Mayo, Eircode F12 Y560, Republic of Ireland.

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The real political decisions are now being made behind the scenes by members of the unelected world government while public politics is just a Punch and Judy Show being put on to distract the attention of the masses of humanity. Corporate leaders make demands and elected politicians bow to their demands due to financial considerations. Governments privatize the resources which are owned by the people of their own country and then they sell off those resources to corporate leaders and bankers. Corporate leaders use bribary of governments to purchase tax breaks and tax havens for themselves. Corporate enslavement of the whole human race will not be the end result if we take some action against the plan to wirelessly connect most of the population to a central internet of bodies control system from implants inside their brains and bodies.
I am wirelessly connected to the internet of bodies control system by a two way stream of low frequency electromagnetic energy without my consent and because of this data is taken from my brain and body and is transmitted to a central location also without my consent. Further to that, data is also being received into my brain and body which enables unknown others to speak to me and to hurt me in various ways. The audio messages which I hear coming from inside my head are encoded into the microwave carrier wave via frequency modulation.
Here is a small selection of what unknown internet of bodies control staff have been saying to me and about me to each other recently as follows:-
"Is she being medicated. " "No." "Get her into the medical system. The only way we will control her is through medication."
"They are happy to pass her off as one of us but she wont be passed off."
"Has she alcohol consumed."
"You weigh more than is necessary."
"Put manners on this lady." "Why" "I happen to think she needs disciplining."
"Is she a nut job." "No. She is not a nut job." " We had to have a system in place to extend our powers."
Conversation between two of the internet of bodies control system staff members was heard by me coming from inside my own head as follows:-
"What is our role here." "Your role is what I say it is. Dont be insolent."
If you wish to know more about how a world control structure was secretly created over the past three centuries without the knowledge of the masses of humanity please read a book called 'Tragedy and Hope' by Carrol Quigley which is highly recommended by many online sources.
If you wish to know more about the internet of bodies please read a free to download e-book which has been published by American think tank Rand,org. but which I believe is quite misleading because it primarily focuses on collecting data from the brain and body while only making one comment about transmitting data into the brain and body.

There is a possible solution.  Please read the information provided in the following website www.antitinnitusv2k.com where you will find details of a cd and specialized headphones which will help to jam signals being sent into your brain and body against your will and without your permission.   The owner of that aforementioned website is a sound engineer called Dave Case and he has been interviewed on the Ramola D Reports youtube channel.

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If you hear technologically induced voices coming from inside your head against your will and wholly without your permission you should always respond to them exactly as follows - "Why am I hearing your voice coming from inside my head against my will and wholly without my permission while saying the following" (here you repeat exactly what they said to you.) Whenever you reply to the people who wirelessly transmit their voices into your head in this manner they react in annoyance for the following reason - The neuro operatives who interrogate me on a constant basis by reproducing their voices inside my head go on to sell their comments combined with my replies to interested parties in order to fully understand my personality type for purposes of brain research and many other types of research. However, they are not allowed to acknowledge to the seller exactly how they procured their data because their methods are highly unethical. The purchaser will only purchase the data on condition that they partially delete the part of my reply which says "Why am I hearing your voice coming from inside my head against my will and wholly without my permission while saying the following". However, said neuro operatives can not delete any of my spoken words without incurring both legal and financial penalties at a later date because of an reason unknown both to me and to the  neuro staff who I do not know and who I have never met.

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The judiciary, lawyers, the military and the police can have their bodies and minds manipulated by digital signals with the result that we are now living in a lawless world. The judiciary, lawyers, the military and the police are putting on a facade of business as usual when we all know that they can be heavily manipulated from behind the scenes both physically and mentally by these digital signals.
We will continue to live in a lawless world while telephone towers remain s...tanding. Telephone towers are the linch pin that holds the whole rigid control system in place.
We are fully aware that satellites are a hoax. All technology being used to transmit digital signals to our brains and bodies is ground based technology. The deep state have spent hundreds of years pushing lies on to their fellow human beings.
There is no point in using the services of the judiciary or the police until the telephone towers are dismantled.

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Unwilling targeted individuals of non-consensual wirelessly enabled neuro weapons research number in their millions throughout most of the world. They are connected by electronic brain link and some other modalities to neuro weapons operatives who they dont know and who they dont respect.

Through this electronic brain link modality and through a number of other modalities the neuro weapons operatives force their voices inside the heads of the targeted individuals while th...e targeted individuals go about their daily lives.
Targeted individuals are virtual hostages to the constant voices of the neuro weapons operatives.

The neuro weapons operatives have claimed that this wireless virtual enslavement system of forced brain to brain interface which the targeted individuals constantly experience will very soon be extended to the whole human race if they refuse to demolish all microwave transmitters which are also known as phone towers.
The neuro weapons operatives have claimed that in the future there will be no governments, no police, no hospitals, no psychiatrists, no schools, no prisons, no banks, no money, no property ownership except for the fact that unknown members of the deep state will attempt full ownership of the whole earth.

There would be virtual prisons from which there could be no escape. There would be virtual hospitals and psychiatrists. Human beings would have no mental privacy whatsoever. They would be abject slaves.
Human beings could slowly and incrementally be totally remote controlled if they disobeyed the unknown enslavers.
Everybody would live inside smart cities where they would not even own their own clothes. They would be given uniforms and they might be moved from residence to residence frequently. They would not even be allowed to own a bicycle. They would be given use of one if they were obedient. Please ask your local representative to have all telephone towers dismantled urgently. This is a world war of attrition that has been slowly and incrementally gaining power for decades and even centuries. Please act now.

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I am a non-consensual neuro weapons test subject for nearly fifteen years. Unknown neuro weapons operatives can now vigorously move and shake my head totally against my will. The can also turn my right arm around by about 180 degrees. They can force words and whole sentences out of my mouth totally against my will. These unknown criminal neuro weapons operatives have informed me that they will soon achieve total control over my whole body. They informed me that when that... day comes they will totally control how much food I eat and when I eat it. They informed me that they would stop me eating by rendering me unable to move my arms from my sides without their permission. It may be too late for me but there is an easy solution to stop this situation from occurring again to any other member of the human race. Simply dismantle all telephone towers and related paraphrenalia thereby rendering digital signals unable to be delivered to the nano particulates inside our bodies which we have inhaled from chemtrail spraying of the skies. Satellites and space based weapons do not exist. They are a psychological operation created to make the human race feel helpless when attacked by neuro weapons.

I really dont know if these criminal neuro weapons operatives could render me unable to move my arms or unable to open my mouth but I strongly suspect they could because they have achieved such extreme capabilities to manipulate my body already that I am beginning to believe they can lock some of my muscles down in a type of neural curtailment control. They have already informed me that neural curtailment is how they plan to enslave myself and others if governments fail to dismantle the telephone towers and related paraphrenalia.

Nobody wishes to discuss the extreme capabilities of black budget neuro weapons and directed energy weapons and voice harassment technology. Furthermore, criminals who wish to further the enslavement agenda of the human race would wish to have me incarcerated in a psychiatric hospital for daring to write about this topic. However we must focus on this topic of neuro weapon enslavement until it is solved. Anybody who accuses the psychiatric services of being criminally negligant for failing to incarcerate me in a psychiatric hospital has a hidden agenda of enslavement towards their fellow human beings. They themselves should be heavily investigated.

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Billions of Euros have been invested in brain weapons research over the past decade.

This brain weapons research has gone totally out of control to the extent that currently anybody including you or a member of your family can be selected to become a subject of non-consensual remote neural monitoring for no good reason.

First of all, whole countries are being showered with chemtrails which are illegally being sprayed from airplanes. These chemtrails contain nano-fibres which we all enhale and ingest. Said nano-fibres are combined with a fungus which attaches itself and integrates with both our brain cells and body cells. Our unique brain signature is being read and our DNA samples are being obtained covertly by agents of the would-be dictatorship.

When all of this information is obtained anybody can then be selected for non-consensual targeting to have their brains mapped by neuro weapons specialists by means of long range wifi while these unwilling targeted individuals are in the privacy of their own homes. The brain of the targeted individual is then turned into a two way audio and visual system. The targeted individual is forced to hear the voices of the neuro weapons specialists every waking moment of their lives while this process is occurring. The targeted individual can also be made to see holograms and to feel sensations both on the surface of their bodies and internally.

After many years, when the targeted individual is finally brain mapped, the muscle structure of the body of the targeted individual can be partially taken over for a short period of time. This neuro takeover process is being enabled by the fact that the neuro weapons specialists first decode and later re-encode subsets of the motor cortex of that targeted individual by remote means via long range wifi. When remote neural takeover occurs the targeted individual can be made to move and act and speak totally against their own will. Sounds and words and whole sentences can be made to come out of their months totally against their wills. Even though directed energy weapons abuses are becoming more and more widespread main stream media are censoring all information about it in order so that the fabric of society will not be de-stabilised. I disagree with their policy of secrecy because it is a known universal truth that secrecy allows evil to flourish.

The military industrial complex have created the global warming hoax, the space travel hoax, the creation of the false existence of satellites , and many other false stories as a form of psychological warfare in order to confuse and disenfranchise the whole human race.

A small cabal of the super-rich have exclusive control of all of the data which is being collected and collated by the brain weapons research scientists. These super-rich plan to use said research data to instantly immobalise by long range wifi anybody who challenges their attempts at world domination. This research data has also enabled said super-rich to instantly send pain signals by long range wifi to whole groups of individuals similtaneuosly without these people ever knowing whether their pain originated in their own bodies or was sent to them by directed energy weapons via long range wifi.

The police, psychiatry, the military and many other power institutions are both being heavily mind controlled by silent sound spread spectrum coming from their technology and are also heavily bound by unfair and unjust laws. For this reason individuals who are covertly being targeted by directed energy weapons, including voice to skull weapons and neuro weapons can not and will not approach the police. Some of the false stories which were deliberatley created to cover up the brain weapons research and voice to skull technology and other technologies include false diagnoses of mental illness as well as false diagnoses of the targeted individual being demonically possessed. False religious apparations and false extra-terresterial visitations were also created to confuse and destableise the human race. In fact there is a whole false reality construct being created on a daily basis by the now privately owned and controlled main-stream media and the government run public education system along with organised religions. This false reality construct has no bearing on the real reality.

Running beside the false reality construct is a government run legal system where the majority of rules and regulations are based on the Satanic created principles of moral relativism rather than objective right and wrong which is a proven science.

The super-structure that seems to be enabling neuro warfare to continue seems to be the mobile phone masts because the neuro weapons experts need long range wifi to continue their attack on the human race. We aught to disable long range wifi urgently and we will stop the aggressors in their tracks.

The main religious system in the world is currently being used as a front for the technological enslavement of the whole human race. .


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Unless what it was told in some ocations and for the first time in a while, I've talking to the perps in my garden. I could confirm they hear to us. I was, for example, talking about nacism and I heard in my head they saying something like 'so you are the jew' (I write in english, but the actually talk in spanish, my native language). There was also a comment they made days ago, also in night. They talked to my head saying 'This time he doesn't speak'). I am also sure they said something as they were from DARPA. 

Listening to me and talking to my head is not the only thing they are doing. They also send electro-shocks to my muscles and torturing my spine with rays all day long. 

I will follow the advice of you people and not talking to them anymore in the future. Talking to them is a waste of time. I only sing the national anthem sometimes and pray out loud for the promt liberation of the damnifies. I hope God listens.

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To read the minds of an entire planet....

In order to read the minds of everyone on the entire planet so that its efficient and technologically pheasible, look at the things that are in the open and cant be hidden, but can be lied about.

Here's the lowdown as i presume it to be. It makes sense. 

Global Aerosols are being sprayed constantly (very heavily and regularly since about 2000) these are nano-metals, conductive especially when electrified via HAARP. This is not a microchip.The implantation is for tracking you specifically by drone or aircraft that stays in flight forever. They change them out ocassionally.

It is how to read everything. You blanket the environment with metal, charge it up, and then read it all day and night, to see how it changes. Specifically,  to see how our EM  

WAVES interfere with the electrified plasma. This can also be used to change dreams,  induce a spiritual state, etc. If you perturb the waves by injecting false ones via hardwre, then your reality is changed. We are all experiencing this altered reality now. Some with the voices added via different hardware. So..

this is a multi-faceted,  multiple technology, interconnected deceit...

The people have done gene therapy to themselves and are wicked to the core.

If you want to believe in aliens, im not denying this either, but let's start with what we can prove or disprove.

The debt the USA is in right now begins to make sense in a global way.

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FOLLOW ME ON TWITTER VOICETOSKULL@VOICE2SKULL OR FACEBOOK ACCOUNT VOICE TO SKULL UNITED KINGDOM.Below is the correct software,technologies and most importantlly the correct frequencys.This is how v2k(voice to skull)radio broadcasters from around the world target innocent civillians who are allready dealing with mental illness especially mental illness sufferers who deal with voices.
1)download winamp media player
2)download shoutcast dsp
3)add frequencys 162.50mhz to winamp library(there should be 162)
4)connect shoutcast dsp to winamp and play library
5)sync winamp to smart phone 1
6)name smart phone 1 bluetooth device 00000111111111111111111111
7)download transparent windows from google play to smart phone 1
8)download best static professional from google play to smart phone 1
9)have frequency 87.75mhz playing on smartphone 1 internal radio
10)connect audio spotlight processor to smart phone 1 via jacklead
11)mirror all above onto PC using appropriate programs available
12)connect PC to TV via hdmi or any other connector
13)place audio spotlight speaker projections at your left ear
14)place TV visual/audio media to your right
15)set smart phone 2 internal radio to 107.75mhz
16)name smart phone 2 bluetooth device 1111111111111111111100000
17)pair smart phone 1 with smart phone 2 using bluetooth
18)pair smart phone 1 and smart phone 2 with PC
1)Winamp is a media player for WindowsAndroid, and OS X developed by Justin Frankel and Dmitry Boldyrev[5][6][7] by their company Nullsoft, which they later sold to AOL. Since version 2 it has been sold asfreemium and supports extensibility with plug-ins and skins, and features music visualizationplaylist and a media library, supported by a large online community.
2)SHOUTcast is cross-platform proprietary software for streaming media over the Internet. The software, developed by Nullsoft, allows digital audio content, primarily in MP3 or HE-AAC format, to be broadcast to and frommedia player software, enabling the creation of Internet radio "stations". SHOUTcast Radio is a related website which provides a directory of SHOUTcast stations.DSP is a plugin feature that enables you to broadcast your content on winamp through your own personal internet radio station
3)A weather radio service is a broadcast service that airs weather reports. When the radio is on and tuned to the weather band, it airs both normal and emergency weather information. If the radio is off or tuned to another band, it automatically turns on and goes to the weather band for emergency weather information.
Weather radio services may also broadcast non-weather related emergency information, such as in the event of a natural disaster, an AMBER alert or a terrorist attack. They generally broadcast in a preallocated very high frequency (VHF) range using FM. Usually a dedicated weather radio receiver or radio scanner is needed for listening, although in some locations a weather radio broadcast may be retransmitted on a conventional AM or FMfrequency (as well as HD Radio substations), some terrestrial television stations broadcasting in MTS stereo transmit weather radio on their second audio program (SAP) channel as well as on one of its digital subchannels(where news and weather are applicable), on local public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable TV channels or during Emergency Alert System activations for tornado warnings primarily on cable systems.Primarily voice automated these generate a constant vocal 24 hrs a day in a male and female voice
4)Connecting shoutcast dsp plugin to winamp media player.first you need to go to website listen2myradio.com and set up a free account.This will give you the correct broadcasting coordinates and ports for your shoutcast dsp plugin enabling you to broadcast your winamp media aswell as talk live.
5)syncing winamp/shoutcast to smartphone 1.This uses ghz if synced over your wifi so the sync frequencys will be mirrored back to the PC then through to the TV
6)Naming smartphone 1 bluetooth device.As bluetooth uses free to air digital binary the a.m frequencys of the two smart phones and PC projecting through the TV generate a 1khz fixed frequency from infrared devices by using 5 seprate digital devices(smart phones paired via bluetooth to PC and TV infrared device combined)making the infrared device(remote control) a digital constant free to air device that generates 1khz constantly using the televisions R(red hue)from RGB as a visual subcarrier, tavelling at 1080hz from left to right it reaches 1000hz which is 1khz transforming a digital free to air frequency into a visual stationary transparent RED hue that bleeds through the scroll of R to create a red to pink to white transparent audio/visual noise through the televisions chosen visual/ audio(which is all media, all devices converted ultrasonically by audio spotlight)The smartphone name generates a binary search which is projected through the TV and audio spotlight speaker.
7)download transparent windows from google play apps for smart phone 1.
This enables the broadcaster to mirror the visual static from the smart phone to the PC to the TV
8)download best static proffesional from google play apps.
once the static has been downloaded send the information from smart phone 1 to PC to V, the visuals travel on the radio static from the smartphones which are converted ultrasonicaly.preferred colour of visual static is RED and BLACK.The red static is attracted to the 1khz which is emitted through our homes by way of loudspeaker pulsars,these speakers can emitt the 1khz containing the visual static even when they are on stand by.The static becomes invisible as it is converted into sound that travels on the invisible static emitted ultrasonicaly through out our homes.
9)Frequency 87.75mhz playing on smart phone 1 internal radio.
Most mobile internal radios start at 87.50mhz to 88.00mhz,the reason the radio is set to 87.75mhz is to a)produce a static sound that will also transmitt the visual static from best static professional once it has been converted by audio spotlight. b)to replicate the number of single 1 khz frequencys the audio spotlight uses to create its directional audio.c)to represent 25 letters of the alphabet carrying over the 26th to 88.01mhz resulting in a continuous echo of the broadcast including vocals all the way to 107.75mhz(which plays on smartphone 2 internal radio)remember a mobile phones internal radio is always recieving a signal even when your not using it and all smart phones recieve an 800mhz signal or 1200mhz to use internet.
10)connect audio spotlight to smart phone 1 via jackleads.
The audio spotlight processor converts all frequencys from the smartphone to the PC to the TV to the audio spotlight speaker this includes everything connected to the PC and TV including all 3 mobile phone devices,all internal radio frequencys including bluetooth,cb,free to air,A.M F.M,3G 4G digital,mhz,hz,ghz,khz(these include the 80 channels cb radio uses,800mhz mobile internet,1.8ghz,1080hz 88.00mhz internal radio,108.00mhz mobile internal radio)and all these frequencys including visual static and translucancy apps are converted by the audio spotlight processor and sent back through the smartphone through the PC and through the television and its loudspeakers and through the audio spotlight speaker which will be placed near there second smart phone as this will be playing 107.75mhz and contain all the random visual static and sound from all mobile devices from everywhere sending the information back to all recievers starting at 87.75mhz which repeats the cycle,all are converted into ultrasonic low a.m  1khz frequencys and there broadcast relies on this for it to transmitt automatically on the converted visual RED and BLACK static that is desguised within the BLACK static surrounding it which is infact BLACK NOISE which is silent in nature.Remember all frequencys known to man are converted into ultrasonics and broadcast between smart phone 1 which is set to 87.75mhz and smart phone 2 which is set to 107.75mhz which repeats the cycle all around the world.
11)mirror all above onto pc
already exsplained above but just for a recap convert all audio/visual from smartphone 1 and all other connected devices including infrared frequency range connect with PC which in turn is connected to TV then all is converted into ultrasonics by audio spotlight processor.
12)connect pc to tv using hdmi lead
they use various connection leads to connect to the TV but hdmi is the best quality.or if you have a PC with a coaxil and TV tuner you can do all of above on your PC without the use of a seprate television.
13)place audio spotlight speaker projections to your left ear.
it is believed that you can hear better with your left ear as it processes information from the right side of your brain
14)place visual media to your right.
explained above.
15)set smart phone 2 internal radio to 107.75mhz
The reason the broadcasters set it to this frequency is because all the information they collect from around the world automatically collects mobile frequency data from 87.75mhz,the static collected echos the remaining 0.1mhz(bringing the frequency past 88.00mhz) through all internal radio frequencys reaching there 2nd smart phone at 107.75mhz repeating the cycle,this totals from 0.25mhz remaining from smart phone 1 to carry 0.1mhz past 88.00mhz to the 0.25mhz remaining to carry it past the 107.75mhz .all mhz frequencys are converted into ultrasonic frequencys carried through all internal radios giving a combined end result frequency of 0.1mhz which emitts through there loudspeakers giving them synthetic telepathy audio which they can adjust by volume settings as oppose to us victims that hear in khz A.M frequency ranges resulting in hearing voices.
16)naming smart phone 2.
results in a bluetooth binary character search for binary digits.
17)pair smart phone 1 to smart phone 2.
18)connect both to pc using bluetooth
Please be carefull who you show this information to as in the wrong hands will only generate more and more v2k broadcasters.Because i have studied frequencys and if im honest it began with a stroke of luck,i can assure you the frequencys are correct because of the primary foundations of weather band radio which is broadcasted globally by free to air transmissions,also free to air frequencys are used for wi-fi bluetooth infrared and cb radio scanners ect so if controlled by a media player and personal broadcast these foundations can be manipulated.All telecommunication devices come with a manual and this explains the FCC15 rule which states a device must or must not accept any types of interference so basically each manufacturer is not denying you could at some stage no matter what the device is pick up interference.All you need to broadcast voice to skull is 2 smart phones audio spotlight and a pc but in order for it to work you need the correct frequencys and software.Voice to skull broadcasters hear in audio(mhz)as oppose to victims who hear in the low end khz range,this is possible as they collect all frequencys through 1 phone and broadcast it through another(using the PC,s bluetooth and placing the output audio which plays through the audio spotlight speaker near the second phone)this repeats the process all around the world collecting a range of 0 to 25 random khz(which travels on there visual static)per mobile device condensing it to reach there devices at 1 mhz which creates a cerebral hypnotic radio station.I will go into greater detail when i recieve a response from yourself.They believe that because victims hear voices and also have thought projection there is no way for them to get past it,past there own imaginations and only they can intervene because they hear in audio (1 mhz) which has been collected from all known devices in 1khz frequencys to form 1mhz audio.They condense all collected visual/audio static and frequencys and record on a 3D blue ray recorder and burn the information on a disc that automatically converts the incoming data into a bit rate,a bit in computer terms means YES/NO its a command ,so if they ask a personal question they will hear the answer as YES/NO then torture the victims with retorical questions .The v2k broadcasters recieve collective reactions to there imaginations,in audio which is for them a safe passageway of broadcasting because with audio you can turn it off and on,thats how i know they hear in 1mhz emissions.When they play a 3D recording back they use transparent light which they can adjust to there desired level .example if they play a sex film and burn a desired transparancy over it when they watch it in 3D they see there imagination cast over it ,this is because transparancy is black and white and so is your subconcious so when they put on the 3D glasses which are red and blue,what they see in red travels on the red and black visual static that has been collected and converted ultrasonically and gets projected from there mind to the inside of the grey outline of the actors,performers on screen and records on the R from the televisions RGB that scrolls from left to right and travels on white visual/noise.They also strongly believe they get cleverer because when they recieve all the data they collect all the binary and binary is what all computer software is based upon ,but what they are actualy doing is hearing each others ideas which are all the same but said in a diffrent tone of voice ,so what im saying is they hear a simplified version of what they already know.They talk to each other all the time and know no one will hear how its done because when you have thought projection like victims have you cant think of something you dont know its impossible unless your the first to figure the freqencys out and know its binary,they knew who ever did would be mentaly ill and be diagnosed with schzophrenia and eventually die or kill them selves ,or they would be the very first in the world to prove a flawless way of murder can be proved by also proving mental illness diagnosis all of them known to man can be transmitted ,broadcasted and recieved by a human subject.
please take this matter with upmost importance,there are certain illusionists who i shall not name who use the technology i have mentioned and it is very,very effective.I have as much information as you could possibly want reguarding this worrying situation .
I ask you,what story could be more bigger than a person diagnosed with schzophrenia proving all known mental illness diagnosis can be synthetically recieved by a cult of radio broadcasters who have been getting away with murder for more than a decade!That the hard facts!
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Book: "My Direct Voice Hearing vol.1" on sale.

 This book contains few months length typing up of the V2K conversation. They seemed to be engaged in the endless radio talking over threats, persuasions, and criminal investigations. 25 dollars. Over 11,000 words and 300 pages. It has the extra section "100 questions to the Direct Voice Hearing Speakers" and their replies.



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The prerecorded spotlight audio alpha tone conversions(alphabetical recordings of vowels) distribute through the visual static displayed on the mobile device and simultaiously through the tv.The pre,recorded alpha tones are a result from converting speech from a google app called cb chat which you use on your mobile device,  the visual static converts the sound into light by the emitters (a device used to exude any signal, beacon, light, odor, liquid, fragrance, ionizing particles or any other type of signal.)The light carries the modulation which is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodicwaveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted that are spotlight audio conversions(alphabetical vowel recordings) through subcarriers which are a seperate analouge or digital signal carried on main radio transmissions.This means the static light travels through the mobile device and television using an fm sub carrier 108,00fm.your mobile device not only broadcasts cb chat in ultrasound it also broadcasts the static light and also the fm carrier 108.00 fm.
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic waves with frequencies significantly below visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz.[1] These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fieldsthat pass through the air and the vacuum of space.
Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.
The spotlight conversions is amplitude(am)air modulated which is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each oscillation within an oscillating system. For example, sound waves in air are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation. If a variable undergoes regular oscillations, and a graph of the system is drawn with the oscillating variable as the vertical axis and time as the horizontal axis, the amplitude is visually represented by the vertical distance between the extrema of the curve and the equilibrium value that is broadcast on 95khz or 250khz frequencys.Human listeners can perceive speech from a voice-modulated ultrasonic carrier presented via a bone-conduction stimulator. This study explored the psychoacoustic characteristics and underlying mechanisms of ultrasonic hearing by measuring difference limens for frequency (DLF) for pure tones modulated onto ultrasonic carriers. Human subjects were presented with two pulsed tones and asked to judge whether the first or the second had the higher pitch. When amplitude modulation was based on a double side-band transmitted carrier, the DLFs were as small as those from the air-conducted pure tones at 0.25-4 kHz. Ultrasounds yielded larger DLFs for tones with low (0.125 kHz) and high (6-8 kHz) frequencies. Results were essentially identical between the two types of carriers, sine wave (30 kHz) and bandpass noise (30+/-4 kHz), despite the different bandwidths in the ultrasonic range. When amplitude modulation was based on a double side-band suppressed carrier, DLFs corresponded to those from tones with double frequencies. These results suggest nonlinear conduction that demodulates audible signals from ultrasounds and provides inputs to the cochlea.You subconciously register vowels through your paranoid state as they are now non-linear ,a controled emission of air controled by your eye sight, there is a connection between your mind and the surface area of what you see(if you aim the spotlight speaker at a wall the sound you convert appears to be coming from the wall if you aim it at the door the sound appears to come from the door) but you asscociate them with subconcious colour as blinking amplifys a reminder of the constonants you just saw accociated with BLACK,the surface area your mind connects to while your eyes are open registers all subconcious BLACK light surrounded by the infra ultra alpha tone A as said before this is a memory of a letter(A) chosen as an option other than EIOU(that are still registerd by sight but only as memory when eyes open))to form the letter BLACK while blinking the letter A has created a sound wave reflected back to the mind off the sight surface area amplifing the constonants around it which replace all non-linear memory EIOU while blinking converting a memory and above it reason being is that flash thought memory replacements register all the vowels surrounding BLACK but only A while your eyes are open which triggers constinonts from the light at the point of what you see.B L enters your mind from the point of what you see which replaces the choice of A E I O U as a raised sound and a trigger for a subconcious action which will register directly in your brain.B L becomes non-linear air,a contoled frequency but this should never be as a constinant is a natural projection of sound ,as you scroll your eyes the memory of B L is replaced by A E I O U only this time the vowels are amplified above B L collecting additional constinonts through way of sight eventualy triggering yourself with the letter B L A C K over and over again depending on the surrounding air waves which fluctuate up and down creating a paranoid viscious circle of pure mental torture .When you blink you are constontly reminded of the letter B L A C K and bring with it the surrounding vowels as you asscociated these with other possible word combinations.When you reopen your eyes these possible word combinations start to trigger other subconcious colour alpha tones until all subconcious light creates a subconcious frequency created by exchanging 21 letters of the alphabet with light emissions .The remaining vowels are used to trigger the v2k broadcasters vocal as the more constinonts you hear think and remember the more there vocal raises above them .As you create memorys of your surroundings these can be used for controled triggering using either a live broadcast or triggering for synthetic telepathy

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How it starts and how it ends

Try exsplaining to the lads down the pub on a footy weekend how a remote control works and theyd laugh at me ,i remember when i was just one of the lads going out every oppotunity drinking lots and having fun.I never used to have to think about what i was going to say conversation just flowed.Seven years ago i was unwillingly entangled in the world i now know as v2k(voicetoskull)"welcome to the worlds most evilest radio station"i heard from an unknown source.At the beginning when it first started i was taking alot of drugs which didnt make matters any better,but then i only thought i could hear things ,theres a massive diffrence to thinking you are and actualy hearing it .Me and my partner were taking amphetamines as part of our sex life and all was well and good until i started hearing whisperings around my girlfriends presence i could never make out what they were saying but i remember thinking i could hear sex everywhere,i even started following my girlfriend to the toilet because when she wasnt in eye shot the whispers became louder,looking back at that time in my life i realy believe i was under the influence of drug induced phycosis,a genuine mental illness but netherless my health detereated fast,i was becoming more and more paranoid to the point of wondering if there was any hidden devices checking phone calls and text messages and aiming all my anger at my girlfriend.Everybody has there own ways of having private moments but under the influence of drugs all your senses are heightend your hearing been one of them.I eventualy come to the conclusion that it was my neighbours listning to us having sex and as far as i was concerned my girlfriend was in on it,this is common side affect of both drug induced phycosis and v2k ,(what im trying to say is that in order to hear v2k you already need to be in an unfit mental state as the two are so much alike.)To cut a long story short i ended up pouring petrol all over my neighbours car only giving second thoughts to lighting it at the last minute,if id have lighted it my doctors said i would have been sectioned for maybe up to two years.Anyway we ended up moving homes to a bungalow down the street and all was well for the first two weeks until one night while i was alone there was this loud hissing sound,i was under the influence of drugs i must admit but this was diffrent,it got so loud i started to feel sick,it was a feeling of clhostrophobia and i imediatly started to worry and thats when it happened."remember zoe sheard thats my girlfriend",the words floated around me as if i could catch them,i immediatly ran out of the house to my mothers who wasnt happy at getting woken up in the early hours but that hiss was still there.Now i understand you must think im a raving lunatic because i always seem to be on drugs but honestly with the situation i am in it was an outlet,a release if you will as things seemed to make sense ,i could hear more clearly without me second guessing what i was hearing.Things from a v2k point of weiw progressed rapidly as when i was trying to sleep there was a mist of mixed voices swirling around me,bits of conversations slipping through my mind.My perpitrators were in total control of what i was hearing until one day they slipped up,i was sat on the couch watching tv when i saw a cobweb stringing its way across my tv to the window shimmering in the sun ,as soon as i saw it i heard"oohhh hes looking at a cobweb"from then on i knew sight triggers sentences.When you realise its sight that triggers there sentences you can do all sorts of things with it,you can control what you hear and soon begin to realise that your hearing your own imagination(as well as the broadcasters)in a diffrent dialect,mannerisms everything.I remember hearing what they called the worlds worst rape,i heard and felt everything,when she screamed i jumped as it sent a shock to my head!the perpritrators was shoving his hand and wrist up through her ass and was saying hes going to snap her ribs from the inside while threatning another woman saying she was next.I was that scared i imagined another person in another room,maybe this was a way of comforting myself but once it had died down i could hear a man crying outside but on looking there was no one there,obviously neither one was there ,i realised i was all alone.I phoned my girlfriend and told her what id heard but she was having none of it,as i tried to get her to come visit me i was tortured by what i now know was me threatning myself through there broadcast.What i mean is when they broadcast you are given thought projection but the voice you here is unrecognisble to you,this voice you hear has second person gramma which you asscociate with as it is so foreign to you.It was another day and another argument with my girlfriend over the phone,i shouted at her you fuckinn slag and put the phone down when i heard"he called her a what?,im sergant slaughter and you are talking to one of my women".The prerecorded spotlight audio alpha tone conversions(alphabetical recordings of vowels) distribute through the infrared transmitter which converts the sound into light by the emitters (a device used to exude any signalbeaconlightodorliquidfragranceionizing particles or any other type of signal.)The light carries the modulation which is  the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodicwaveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted that are spotlight audio conversions(alphabetical vowel recordings) through subcarriers which are a seperate analouge or digital signal carried on main radio transmissions

Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic waves with frequenciessignificantly below visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz.[1] These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fieldsthat pass through the air and the vacuum of space.

Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitudefrequencyphase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.

The spotlight conversions is amplitude(am)air modulated which is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each oscillation within an oscillating system. For example, sound waves in air are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation. If a variable undergoes regular oscillations, and a graph of the system is drawn with the oscillating variable as the vertical axis and time as the horizontal axis, the amplitude is visually represented by the vertical distance between the extrema of the curve and the equilibrium value that is broadcast on 95khz or 250khz frequencys.You subconciously register vowels through your paranoid state as they are now non-linear ,a controled emission of air controled by your eye sight, there is a connection between your mind and the surface area of what you see(if you aim the spotlight speaker at a wall the sound you convert appears to be coming from the wall if you aim it at the door the sound appears to come from the door) but you asscociate them with subconcious colour as blinking amplifys a reminder of the constonants you just saw accociated with BLACK,the surface area your mind connects to while your eyes are open registers all subconcious BLACK light surrounded by the infra ultra alpha tone A as said before this is a memory of a letter(A) chosen as an option other than EIOU(that are still registerd by sight but only as memory when eyes open))to form the letter BLACK while blinking the letter A has created a sound wave reflected back to the mind off the sight surface area amplifing the constonants around it  which replace all non-linear memory EIOU while blinking converting a memory and above it  reason being is that flash thought memory replacements register all the vowels surrounding BLACK  but only A while your eyes are open which triggers constinonts from the light at the point of what you see.B L enters your mind from the point of what you see which replaces the choice of A E I O U as a raised sound and a trigger for a subconcious action which will register directly in your brain.B L becomes non-linear air,but this should never be as it should be a natural projection of sound ,as you scroll your eyes the memory of B L is replaced by A E I O U only this time the vowels are amplified above B L collecting additional constinonts through way of sight eventualy triggering yourself with the letter B L A C K over and over again depending on the surrounding air waves which fluctuate up and down creating a paranoid viscious circle of pure mental torture .When you blink you are constontly reminded of the letter B L A C K and bring with it the surrounding vowels as you asscociated these with other possible word combinations.When you reopen your eyes these possible word combinations start to trigger other subconcious colour alpha tones until all subconcious light creates a subconcious frequency created by exchanging 21 letters of the alphabet with light emissions .The remaining vowels are used to trigger the v2k broadcasters vocal as the more constinonts you hear think and remember the more there vocal raises above them .As you create memorys of your surroundings these can be used for controled triggering using either a live broadcast or triggering for synthetic telepathy.

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How v2k becomes voice to skull

V2k broadcasters use spotlight audio technology,the processor converts audible sound(including speech)into millions of ultratones which reflect back to the origonal source enabling directional sound.They use sonar software by cakewalk to broadcast additional tones by way of vowels recorded and repeated vocaly through the spotlight speaker then additionaly through there broadcast which can be c.b radio or internet radio.The additional tones recieve on all known recievers dispercing  them everywhere through loudspeakers(Tv radios mobile phones air)and travel on the very air we breath.The vowel ultratones go undetected as they flood the air within our homes going unoticed by the majority of the population,only to be percieved by the already ill.You and me both know you are paranoid about something otherwise you wouldnt be reading this.V2k starts when you are at the point of paranoia,reason being is when you become paranoid you concentrate on silence to find the solution as to why you feel the way you do.V2k IS concentrated air,a slight rise in sound which only  the ill percieve.Remember vowels are a letter between breaths which happen inbetween the sounds you make while speaking ,when you register v2k you will have thought you have heard voices or indeed has either way your thoughts are projecting to the point of sight.Because you have become so paranoid you have given yourself symptons of mental illness as you further more concentrate on silence which inturn percieves the vowel ultratones ,because this is a subconcious rise in sound it exchanges information with your eyesight movement.So let me illitarate,paranoia becomes a mental illness as you concentrate on the air around you,the vowel ultratones surrounding you are percieved by your subconcious mind causing a connection between your breath and your sight,a vowel has now become a magnet to all you see alphabeticaly,let me remind you we spell at an astronomical speed giving us awarness of self being learning from our subconcious register to colours which helps us form  the words we speak and hear.If you have ever thought you are hearing voices and are reading this chances are you are a v2k target although some of you dont know it yet,when you look around you collect constinonts which trigger your sight(vowels)e.g your breath amplifys your connection to what you see which in turn has constinonts within them,a constinont is the shape your mouth makes when forming sound,as you are not making any sound this becomes the broadcasters trigger.A constinont is now a subconcious search for greater sound which only registers another vowel which is of lesser sound giving the feeling of no escape and a forced way of thinking as the process repeats itself even while sleeping.So now you are caught in a loop that forces you to think which because your paranoid will turn into a search for hidden devices conspiracy theories and all other matters of illness.So let me give you a quick recap,your paranoia becomes a constant search for silence which combines with the vowel ultratones which amplifys the letters you see by way of sight.The volume of air you see will be that in your mind only to pick up constinonts which are a natural movement of creating sound.You think 5 vowels while searching and recieve constinonts by way of colour these exchange with vowels creating sound out of colour.Your left to give yourself a mental illness by exchanging letters of the alphabet into colours then back into the alphabet, the letters B L are rememberd through five vowels triggering them into voices which you cant escape ,these voices could either be yourself or a v2k broadcasters either way theres still no escape.

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Basics of radio

|=---------------------=[ The basics of Radio ]=-------------------------=| |=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=| |=------------------=[ shaun2k2 <shaun at rsc dot cx>  ]=----------------=|  0 - Introduction   0.1 - Technical Terms  1 - Radio Basics   1.1 - Radio Waves   1.2 - Carrier   1.3 - (RF) Frequency Bands   1.4 - Wavelength   1.5 - Transmission   1.6 - Receiving  2 - AM Radio   2.1 - What is AM Radio?   2.2 - Modulation   2.3 - Demodulation   2.4 - Circuits       2.4.1 - Receivers       2.4.2 - Transmitters  3 - FM Radio   3.1 - What is FM radio?   3.2 - Modulation   3.3 - Demodulation   3.4 - Circuits  4 - Misc   4.1 - Pirate Radio   4.2 - Wireless Telephone Tapping   4.3 - Jamming  5 - Conclusion  6 - Bibliography  --[ 0 - Introduction      Ever since our discovery of radio, in around 1902, we have proceeded to utilise it for many different purposes -- from sending others short messages, to transmitting large and critical data sequences to other computer systems.  As time has gone on, as useful a technology as radio is, it is barely noticed anymore.  When most people think of 'radio', they picture a small black device sitting in their car, which they will use to listen to their local radio stations during car journeys.  On the other hand, very few people realise the true usefullness of radio, often forgetting that their cellphones, televisions, satellite TV and alarm systems all too use radio to complete their task on a very regular medium -- radio is not just that boring old thing gathering dust in the corner.      This article is divided up into four parts.  The first part describes the basic theory of radio, and examples to illustrate some of the common day uses of it.  In parts two and three, AM and FM radio details are outlined showing various different circuits to illustrate how these principles can be applied to real-life, functioning circuits.  Section four is a misc. section, presenting some miscellaneous interesting points.  Some electronics knowledge is useful in radio, though not totally necessary.  Most circuits presented here are quite rough, and can be greatly improved upon in many ways.    ----[ 0.1 - Technical Terms  Below is a description of technical terms used throughout the article:   RF          -- Any frequency within the radio spectrum, which can be                used by to transmit and receive radio signals.  Modulation  -- A technique used to package data into a radio signal                which is of use to the destination radio receiver.  AM          -- Amplitude Modulation.  This involves shifting the amplitude                of a radio signal's carrier very slightly in sympathy with                a modulating signal.  FM          -- Frequency Modulation.  FM modulation involves shifting the                frequency of a radio wave's carrier very slightly in                sympathy with a modulating signal.  Receiver    -- Any device which is capable of receiving radio signals                sent by a radio transmitter.  Transmitter -- A device which can transmit radio waves into the                surrounding environment.  Aerial      -- A medium to large piece of wire which is used by either a                radio transmitter or receiver to propagate or detect an                incoming radio signal.  In a radio receiver or transmitter,                an aerial acts as one plate of a capacitor, whilst the other                plate is taken place by the Earth.  Antenna     -- See aerial.  Wireless    -- Refers to any technology which communicates data without the                need for a wired connection.  Most wireless devices, such as                cell phones, televisions, and others use radio, but several                do use technologies such as infrared, which is not covered                here.  Radio wave   -- A radio wave is an 'electromagnetic' wave, most commonly                 containing data to be received by a remote radio receiver.  Oscillator   -- Refers to an electronic circuit which 'oscillates', or                 'vibrates', to complete a certain task.  Oscillators are                 used in radio to transmit radio waves at a given                 frequency -- the rate at which the oscillator oscillates is                 the RF (see RF) at which the wave is transmitted.  Common                 oscillator circuits, also used in this paper, are LC                 oscillator circuits, and crystal-controlled oscillators.  Crystal-controlled oscillator   -- An oscillator circuit whos oscillation frequency is                 controlled by a 'crystal'. See oscillator.  LCoscillator -- An oscillator consisting of a capacitor and an inductor,                 whos frequency of oscillation is controlled directly by the                 capacitor, which is usually variable.  See oscillator.  Capacitor    -- Device which stores current as an electrical field.  Broadcast    -- A term used to describe transmitting radio waves into the                 atmosphere.  Wavelength   -- The physical distance between two waves on the same                 frequency, transmitted successively.  Bands        -- Frequency Bands are a range of frequencies used                 interchangeably or commonly for the same type of technology.                 For example, televisions often use the VHF band.  Frequency    -- Number of cycles per seconds. Frequency can be used to                 describe how often an oscillator oscillates.  Sidebands    -- When modulation of a carrier is applied, two extra                 bands are generated, both slightly higher and lower                  than the carrier frequency, equating from the 'sum and                  difference' of the carrier and audio                 frequency.  These two bands appear at either end of                 the RF carrier, hence the term 'sidebands'.     --[ 1 - Radio Basics  ----[ 1.1 -  Radio Waves      Radio waves, otherwise referred to as 'radio signals', are simply electromagnetic waves.  Radio waves are transmitted by devices called 'radio transmitters' or 'transmitters' for short.  Despite our wide and many uses for radio waves as a whole, we actually known very little about 'radio'.  We do know, however, that radio waves are a form of energy, which act exactly like they have been propagated as any other type of wave we know of. For example, an audio wave.      Radio waves are made up of three things; an electric field, a direction, and a magnetic field.      Despite our underlying ignorance of radio and its properties, we can predict and use its properties to our advantage to undergo a wide variety of different tasks -- and will probably do so for a long time to come.   ----[ 1.2 - Carrier      An 'RF carrier' can be thought of as the part of the radio wave which can be modulated to 'carry' a data signal. An analogy to help with understanding this is to think of turning on a flashlight and pointing it towards a wall.  The light which is seen on the wall is the 'carrier'.      Before and without modulation, the carrier of a radio wave contains no data, and just contains peaks of an RF voltage.                            peak voltage                         ||\\    ///\    //\\                        || \\  //  \\  //  \\                        ||  \\\/    \\\/    \\                               RF carrier       Because sending radio waves with a carrier containing no data would be almost useless, a carrier is 'modulated' to contain data. There are various modulation schemes in wide use, but the two most common schemes are AM (Amplitude Modulation) and FM (Frequency Modulation). These are discussed later.   ----[ 1.3 - (RF) Frequency Bands      As we can gather from listening to a variety of radio stations, different forms of technology use an entirely different 'band' of radio frequencies on which to send and receive their radio signals.      The entire range in which radio signals are transmitted extends from around 30KHz, up to about 30GHz.  This whole range of available RFs (Radio Frequencies) is known as the 'radio spectrum'.  The radio spectrum's range of frequencies, and their concurrent uses are shown in the below table.  +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | Frequency         | Uses                       | Name                | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 30KHz-300KHz      |   Long-wave radio, useful  | Low Frequency (L.F) | |                   |   for long distance        |                     | |                   |   communications           |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 300KHz-3MHz       |   Medium wave, local radio | Medium Freq (M.F)   | |                   |   distant radio stations   |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 3MHz-30MHz        |   Short wave radio         |  High (H.F)         | |                   |   Communications           |                     | |                   |   Amateur radio            |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 30MHz-300MHz      |   FM Radio                 |  Very High (V.H.F)  | |                   |   Police radio             |                     | |                   |   Meteorology Comms        |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 300MHz-3GHz       |   Air Traffic Control      |  Ultra High (U.H.F) | |                   |   TV                       |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+ | 3GHz-30GHz        |   Radar Comms              |  Microwaves (S.H.F) | |                   |   Satellites               |                     | |                   |   Telecommunications (TV & |                     | |                   |   telephone)               |                     | +-------------------+----------------------------+---------------------+       Since certain frequency bands are used to accomodate important communications, such as the VHF band, it became illegal to transmit radio waves at certain frequencies without a license. It was made so because transmission of radio signals at important frequencies could interrupt critical communication, such as communication between police officers with their radio transmitter devices.      All frequencies within the radio spectrum are invisible to humans. Light frequencies which are visible to humans, i.e frequencies which are present in the light spectrum, operate at *much* lower frequencies.   ----[ 1.4 - Wavelength      Wavelength is the physical distance between a peak in one radio wave, to the peak in another radio wave transmitted successively -- on the same RF.  As a general analogy, the wavelength can be thought of as the distance that the peak in a given wave will have travelled in the space of time for one cycle. This can be calculated using the below simple formula.  |\ = V / F  * |\ = lamda   V  = Velocity   F  = Frequency      Using this formula, the wavelength for an example scenario can be calculated, when the RF is 27MHz.  The speed of light is 300 million meters/second, which is therefore the velocity of the electromagnetic wave.  |\ = 300,000,000 / 27,000,000  = 11.11r      Looking at the above calculation, what can be gained? It seems that the wavelength for waves transmitted in the example scenario is 11.11 (recurring) meters, so from this, it can be gathered that a peak in a particular radio wave will have travelled 11.11r meters in the time it took for one oscillation of the transmitting oscillator. But how can we know how long this oscillation period takes? We can calculate this using the formula '1 / f'.  1 / 27,000,000 = 0.0000000370r      This means that within the miniscule time frame of 0.0000000370 (recurring) seconds, the peak within the radio wave should have travelled approximately 11.11 (recurring) meters.      Wavelength might seem quite a useless thing to calculate on its own, but it comes in very useful when it comes to calculating suitable aerial lengths for both radio transmitters and radio receivers. As a rule of thumb, an ideal length for a radio aerial is around 1/2 of the signals wavelength. This can be calculated very easily.  11.11 / 2 = 5.555 (roughly)      From this calculation, we can gain the knowledge that a near ideal radio transmitter/receiver aerial can be constructed to be of around 5.5 meters. Exact precision is not generally critical to the overall operation of the radio transmitter/receiver. For example, where portability of equipment is more of a concern than great efficiency, 1/4, 1/8 or even 1/16 of the wavelength in meters is often used for the length of the radio aerial.  11.11 / 4 = 2.7775 11.11 / 8 = 1.38875 11.11 / 16 = 0.694375      From this little experiment we can see that we can turn a length which is considerably out of question due to portability desires, into a length which is much more suitable, yet efficiency is not affected too much.      This technique is very commonly employed to calculate sensible lengths for radio aerials.  However, other techniques are also employed, especially in the case of satillite TV.  Notice how TV satillite dishes house tiny holes in the body of the dish? These holes are specially sized to ensure that radio waves with wavelengths less than that associated with the desired RFs (3GHz-30GHz) do not create an electrical current in the aerial wire, as suitable radio waves do. Holes based upon the same principle can also be found when looking inside a microwave oven.  ----[ 1.5 - Transmission      Perhaps one of the most difficult concepts to grasp in radio is how radio waves are actually broadcast into the environment. As touched upon previously, radio waves are transmitted using oscillators in electronic circuits, and the rate at which the oscillator oscillates is the frequency at which the radio waves are transmitted.      As an example, we will focus on using an LC tuned oscillator circuit in the radio transmitter circuit.  LC oscillators are made up of an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C).  If we consider how a capacitor stores current, we can come up with the conclusion that it is stored as an electric field between two plates -- these two plates make up the capacitor. During one oscillation (also known as a 'cycle') of the LC tuned circuit, all available current is stored first in the capacitor as an electric field, and then as a magnetic field associated with the LC circuit's inductor.  After a *very* short time period (1/f), the magnetic field is turned back into an electrical current, and begins to recharge the capacitor again.  Because the inductor's magnetic field is beginning to change back into electrical charge, the inductor turns another electrical field into a magnetic field in order to counter-act the change. This continuous cycle of quick changes keeps the current in the LC circuit flowing in the same direction, driven by the current stored in the inductor. When the inductor's charge eventually becomes zero, the capacitor becomes charged again, but with the opposite polarity. After each oscillation (cycle), energy loss has occured, but not all of the energy loss can be accounted for as energy lost as heat from the inductor's coil. Thus, we can gather that some energy has been 'leaked' from between the capacitor's plates, as electromagnetic energy -- radio waves.      If we consider this, we can conclude that the further apart the plates in the capacitor are, the more energy is broadcast ('leaked') as radio waves.  This must mean that if we have a capacitor with plates spaced 1 meter apart, more energy will be broadcast as radio waves than if the capacitor had plates spaced a very small distant apart. By thinking even deeper, we can conclude that to maximise 'leakage' of radio energy, a capacitor is needed in the LC tuned oscillator circuit with plates spaced at quite a distance apart.  It just so happens that for this task, to maximise broadcast of radio waves, the world's largest plate can be used to take the place of one plate of the capacitor -- the Earth!  The other capacitor plate needs just be a suitably lengthed piece of wire, which is an equally common sight -- this piece of wire is known as an 'aerial'!      In real-world radio transmitters, oscillator circuits are used to make a small current 'oscillate' in an aerial wire.  Because of the constant change of energy form in the oscillator circuit, the current oscillating in the length of the wire becomes electromagnetic and is radiated as radio energy.      Back to the length of the aerial in relation to wavelength; this is where the length calculated earlier comes in handy. From the knowledge gained here, we can assume an adapted LC oscillator circuit as below.                  Capacitor           Inductor               ________________             |                )             |                )            ---               )____________  Aerial            ---               )             |                )             |________________)       As a concept, using the adapted LC tuned oscillator circuit above, the transmission of radio waves can be thought of like this; radio waves are generated due to the propagation of an electric current in an aerial wire. It is, as we have learnt, the 'leakage' of electromagnetic energy from between the two plates of the capacitor which causes broadcasting of radio waves.       As oscillations occur in our LC tuned circuit, all available energy is stored in the capacitor, followed by energy (electrical current) not leaked as electromagnetic waves being fed into the inductor.  This whole process measures one oscillation, and once one oscillation is over, the whole process repeats itself again, and each time energy is being lost as radio waves from the acting 'capacitor' (aerial and Earth). Therefore, it is the rate at which the LC circuit is oscillating (the 'frequency') at that determines the frequency at which the radio waves are broadcast at -- thus determining the RF of the radio signals.  ----[ 1.6 - Receiving      The concept of receiving radio signals is based upon almost the opposite of the concepts of transmitting radio waves. In similarity to radio transmitters, radio receivers also use an aerial, but for a totally different purpose; for detecting the radio signals in the environment. As described previously, radio waves are a form of energy, propagated as electromagnetic waves through the air. Thus, when radio signals transmitted by nearby radio transmitters pass the aerial of the receiver, a *tiny* RF alternating current is generated in the aerial wire.  When a signal becomes present in the aerial wire, 'wanted' radio frequencies are 'selected' from the assortment of RF currents in the aerial, using a 'tuned circuit'.      As an example, we'll focus on the LC tuned circuit as in the previous  section, due to the simplicity of this circuit. RF current of the 'wanted' frequency can be selected from amongst the other RFs by use of an LC tuned circuit, which is set to resonate at the frequency of the 'wanted' radio frequency.  This selection is done because the LC tuned circuit has low impedance at any frequencies other than the 'wanted' frequency. Frequencies other than the 'wanted' frequency are prevented from passing through the circuit because they are 'shorted out' due to low impedance of the LC circuit at any other frequency than the resonant frequency (the frequency of the 'wanted' signals).      Following the selection of correct radio frequencies from the other RF signals, the radio receiver will usually amplify the signal, ready for demodulating.  The technique which is adapted by the receiver for demodulating the radio signal into the modulating signal is totally dependant on the type of modulation being used in the received radio wave.  In the case of an AM radio receiver, a selected signal will be 'rectified' and thus demodulated, using a low-drop germanium diode. This process basically turns the alternating RF current back into a direct DC current, which represents the power strength of the AM signal.  Next, the RF component is generally removed by using a capacitor. The output product of this process is a recovered modulating signal which can be fed to a pair of high impedance headphones.  The diagram below represents how the selected RF current is rectified by the diode.                                                          ||\\  //\\ ----------------------|>|--------------- ||\\ //\\   || \\||  \\                                         || \\||  \\   \/\/\/\/\/\/  AM Modulated Carrier  diode                     Modulating signal                                               (RF carrier present)       After being rectified by the diode, the AM radio signal is still not suitable to be fed to an audio output, as the RF carrier is still present. The RF carrier can be removed by using a single capacitor.                                      | | ||\\  //\\  ------------------------| |---------------------  /\  /\ || \\||  \\                         | |                      /  \/  \  Modulating signal                  capacitor          Modulating signal                                                     (RF carrier removed)       The output of the capacitor is a recovered modulating audio waveform which is suitable for passing to an audio output device, such as a set of headphones with a high impedance.      This technique is likely to be the simplest way to create an AM radio receiver, commonly known as the 'crystal set', used by the mass in the 1920s.  Other receivers are more often used to produce a higher quality of audio output, such as TRFs (Tuned Radio Receivers) and Superhetrodyne receivers.      The whole system model of a radio receiver at its most basic level can be thought of as the below diagram.            Modulated Radio Signal (electric current generated in aerial wire by radio wave)                   |                  \|/             Signal amplified                   |                  \|/            Signal demodulated                   |                  \|/           Modulating signal       Although the techniques and components needed to achieve each step of the diagram are different, most receivers stick to this sort of system.  Other types of receivers and their circuits are discussed more indeph in the section they are related to.   --[ 2 - AM Radio  ----[ 2.1 - What is AM Radio?      AM Radio refers to any form of technology which makes use of Amplitude Modulation to modulate the 'carrier' with information. To package a radio wave with often complex signals, the carrier of a radio wave is shifted in power very slightly in sympathy with a modulating audio or data signal. Next to morse code, AM is one of the simplest forms of modulation, and with this, comes its disadvantages.  ----[ 2.2 - Modulation       AM Modulation involves nothing more than shifting the power of a radio wave's carrier by tiny amounts, in sympathy with a modulating signal. Amplitude, as you probably already knew, is just another word for 'power'.       The simplicity of AM modulation can be demonstrated with a simple diagram like the one below.   ||\\    ///\    //\\ || \\  //  \\  //  \\  --->  \  /\  /  --->     \\    \\ ||  \\\/    \\\/    \\        \/  \/            \\ ///\\                                                 \\// \\                                                       RF Carrier            Modulating signal        AM signal        As you can hopefully make out from the diagrams, whenever the modulating signal (the signal which we are modulating) increases in voltage, the amplitude (power) of the RF carrier is increased in sympathy with the modulating signal.  When the voltage of the modulating signal declines in voltage, the opposite of above happens.  After AM modulating the carrier, the signal has usually twice the 'bandwidth' of the original modulating signal.   ----[ 2.3 - Demodulation      When an AM designed radio receives a radio wave, as previously noted, a small RF alternating current is generated in the aerial wire.  Because of the AM modulation of the carrier applied by the sending transmitter, the voltages in the carrier are larger and smaller than each other, but in equal and opposite amounts.  As a result, to recover the modulating signal, either the positive or the negative part of the modulated signal must be removed. In the simplest AM radio receivers, the modulated signal can be 'rectified' by making use of a single germanium low-drop diode.     \\/\/\/\/\  \\  /// //    ---------------------|>|----------------- \\  ///  //   \\// \\/                                                \\// \\//                                                     AM radio signal                  diode         Modulating signal        Here, part of the carrier has been removed, resulting in recovery, or 'rectification' of the modulating signal.      Because the carrier frequency (the RF of the radio wave) is usually significantly greater than the modulating frequency, the RF carrier can be removed from the resultant modulating signal, using a simple capacitor.   \\        //                   |  |  \\  ///  //    ----------------|  |----------------  \  /\  /  \\// \\//                     |  |                   \/  \/   Modulating signal           capacitor             Modulating signal (with RF carrier)                                (without RF carrier)       By exposing the rectified signal to a capacitor, the audio signal (or otherwise data signal) is smoothed, producing a higher quality of audible output.  At this point, the modulating signal is more or less recovered.      Although this technique of AM demodulation can be made to work to a satisfactory level, the vast majority of commercial radio receivers now adopt a design known as 'superhet', which I will explain briefly here.      Superhet receivers are based upon the principle of 'mixing' two signals to produce an intermediate frequency. The diagram illustrates a superhet receivers operation.   Carrier in ---> Tuned circuit  ---> Mixer ---> IF amplifier ---> Detector                (selects correct RF)    |                           |                                       |                           |                                        |                           |                                Local oscillator               Audio Amp                                                                   |                                                                   |                                                                 +--+                                                                 |  |                                                                 +--+                                                                 \__/                                                            As we can see, superhet demodulation is significantly more complex than 'rectification'.  Superhet receiver systems, like the above system diagram, works basically as follows.  First, an RF alternating current becomes present in the circuit, because of the electromagnetic activity around the aerial.  Signals of the correct radio frequency are selected via a tuned circuit, and inputted into one input pin of the 'mixer'.  In the meantime, the other input of the mixer is occupied by the 'local oscillator', which is designed to be oscillating at a frequency just lower than the inputted radio frequency. The output of the mixer is known as the 'Intermediate Frequency' (IF), which is the difference between the local oscillator frequency, and the frequency of the received AM radio signal. Next, the 'IF' is amplified, and passed to an 'envelope detector'. The output of the envelope detector is the modulating audio signal (an AF -- Audio Frequency), which is in turn amplified, and outputted to the user via a loudspeaker or other audio output device.      Since the local oscillator is almost always set to oscillate at a frequency of approximately 465KHz *below* the frequency of the carrier input, the output of the mixer will always be a 'carrier' of 465KHz -- which still carries the modulated information.  After the signal is amplified by the IF amplifier(s) (there can be more than one IF amplifier), the signal is now demodulated by the detector -- which is often just a single diode.  As mentioned above, the modulating signal recovered by the system can be fed to an amplifier, followed by an audio output device.      As well as producing a higher quality of audio signal, superhet receivers also eliminate the need to be able to tune multiple tuned circuits in a TRF (Tuned Radio Receiver).  TRF designs become awkward when it comes to tuning them into different radio frequencies because of the many tuned circuits needed -- superhets overcome this problem as they always 'know' what the collector load will be -- a 465KHz signal. Superhet designs can also be adapted to work with FM radio signals, assuming the 'detector' is changed to a suitable detector for FM signals (i.e phase detector).   ----[ 2.4 - Circuits      Since radio technology is a frequently discussed topic across the Internet, many radio circuit design implementations are readily available, ranging from very simple circuits, to quite complex ones. Here I present some radio related circuits which most people with a bit of electronics knowledge and the right components can build.   ------[ 2.4.1 - Receivers      Discussed above was the historic 'crystal set' radio receiver, which allows anyone with a long enough aerial wire and a few components to listen to AM radio bands.  Below is the basic crystal set radio receiver circuit, which is very easy to construct.       Aerial Wire             D1 *         |            Q1         |               ____|>|__________________         |_____________|/             |          |         |             |\             |          |  _______|_____          |            |          | (             |         |            |          | ( L1         --- C1 *   |        C2 ---         0  high impedance (            ---        |           ---         0  headphones (             |         |            |          | (_____________|         |            |          |         |               |            |          |         |_______________^____________|__________|         |               | (not joined)         |_______________|         |        GND  - C1 should be a variable capacitor to allow the station to tune into   other frequency bands.  - D1 should be a low-drop germanium diode -- non-germanium diodes   won't work.       From previous discussion, we can figure out that the above 'crystal set' AM radio receiver works as follows; incoming radio waves generate a tiny alternating current in the aerial wire, from which 'wanted' radio frequencies are selected, by the tuned LC circuit. Selected current passes through a diode, which 'rectifies' the signals, thus demodulating them. Before the diode, there is a simple transistor, which amplifies the 'wanted' frequency. The only reason for this is to make the quality of sound slightly better. Any remaining RF components are removed using a single capacitor -- this consequently has the effect of smoothing out the signal. The product audio signal is passed to a set of headphones -- these *must* be high-impedance, or nothing audible sounds on the headphones.      As was noted earlier, this type of receiver was used frequently in the 1920s, and gave even newbie electronic enthusiasts of that time the opportunity to build something that would be considered very useful at that time.  To make decent use of the 'crystal set' circuit, around 60-70 turns of wire around a rod of ferrious metal would create a good aerial.      Designs like above are never used in commercial radio receivers anymore. Excluding superhet receivers, TRFs are occasionally used to produce low quality radio receivers. Below is a simple TRF receiver schematic.                    Aerial             |              C5*   C6   +9V            |        ________________________________________            |        |     |    |       )                    |            |        |    ---  ---      )  LC2              |-|            |        |    ---  ---      )                 __| |            |        |     |____|_______)                 | |_|            |        |        |                           |  |   C8           ---  C1   |        |            D1     C7      |  |___| |____0           ---      _|_     Q1_____________|>|________| |_|_|/   | |    0   LC1      |    R1 | |      /                  |     | |   |\ Q2   _________|__     |_|  __|/                   |            |  High impedance   |           )     |  |  |\_____              |            |  headphones   |           )     |  |        |              |            |   |           )     |  |        |              |            |  ---  C2 *    )___| |__|_       |              |            |  ---          )   | |    |      |              |            |   |           )   C3     |      |              |            |   |___________)          |      |    C4        |            |                          |      |_____         |            |                          |      |    |     R4  |-|      R6 |-|                     R2  |-| R3 |-|  ---        | |         | |                         | |    | |  ---        |_|         |_|                         |_|    |_|   |          |           |                      ____|______|____|_________ |___________|                                        0V   - C2 should be a variable capacitor - C5 and C6 should be variable capacitors - Resistors of sensible values should suffice - Capacitors of sensible values should suffice        As in the 'crystal set' receiver, when a radio signal is 'picked up' by the aerial, the proper frequency is selected using the LC tuned circuit.  The signal is passed to a transistor amplifier.  However, this time, the transistor amplifier has a 'tuned collector load', because of the tuned LC circuit (LC2) at the collector leg of the transistor.  Next, the signal is rectified, stored in a few capacitors until enough current has collected, and is eventually fed to the user with the high impedance headphones.  The use of the tuned collector load at the transistor causes for the receiver to be more precise, amplifying only the signals which are at the frequency of LC2's resonant frequency.  As expected, this causes for a higher quality of audio signal to be fed into the users headphones, making this a much better radio receiver.       A few things can be done to improve the above receiver, such as adding yet more tuned amplifiers, and perhaps adding a few more resistors and capacitors for safety and efficiency purposes.    ------[ 2.4.2 - Transmitters      All that we really need to do when designing a simple radio transmitter is keep in mind that we require an oscillator -- either tuned or crystal controlled -- and a series of amplifier circuits which boost our signal. After these stages, all that is left is to make the signals oscillate in the aerial wire.  Below is a simple radio transmitter schematic.                                                                                                                         Aerial                                                                       |                                                                      |   ___________________________________________________________________|  |                        |                 |       |         |      |  |                        |                 |       |         |      |  |                     L1 )                 |       |         |   L3 |  |                        )          R3    |-|   C3 |         |__    ) |-|  R1   Crystal         )                | |     ---        |  |   ) | |_________|_____________)                |_|     ---        |  | C5) |_|        |||            |                 |       |         | ---  )  |                        |_______| |_______|_AM ___|_______|/  ---  |  |                       /        | |         Modulator     |\___|___|  |__________| |________|/         C2                      Q2    |    |  |          | |        |\   Q1                          (PNP)   |    )  |          C1           |                                     ---   )  |                      |-|                                 C4 ---   )  M                      | |  R4                                 | L2 )  |                      |_|                                     |    |  |                       |                                      |    |  |                       |                                      |    |  |_______________________|______________________________________|____|   - TR2 is a PNP transistor - M is a microphone      This circuit works by oscillating at the frequency controlled by the crystal (27MHz would be legal in the UK), amplifying the signal with tuned collector loads at the transistor (TR1), and then by radiating the signal off as radio waves by oscillating the signal in the aerial wire. Amplitude modulation is added to the signal by varying the gain of the transistor driver, by connecting it to the output of a microphone. The above circuit is quite inefficient, and is likely to produce low quality signals, but it can be used as a starting point to building a simple AM radio transmitter. It's probably illegal to operate the above circuit on frequencies requiring a license, so some countries *require* the circuit to be crystal controlled on a 'model radio' RF.  One improvement to be made on the schematic is to amplify the output of the microphone before feeding it to the transistor driver.      Possible devices which could apply the AM modulation are audio amplifiers, or even op-amps.  An audio amp following the oscillator would produce a higher quality, stronger signal, but would also provide power gain (i.e amplitude gain), in sympathy with the audio signal produced by the microphone.  This gain of amplitude due to the audio amp has essentially applied Amplitude Modulation of the carrier signal, because the power of the signal has been altered according to the inputted audio signal (at the microphone).  An ordinary op-amp could be used in a similar way, but by substituting the non-inverting input pin with a suitable power supply.  Essentially, this would cause for an outputted gain from the op-amp, according to the audio signal, because the two inputs to the op-amp are compared, as such.    --[ 3 - FM Radio  ----[ 3.1 - What is FM radio?      FM radio just means any form of technology which makes use of radio with FM modulated signals. To modulate a radio wave's carrier with information, FM transmitters shift the frequency of the carrier very slightly, to be in sympathy with a modulating signal.   ----[ 3.2 - Modulation      FM modulation consists of little more than shifting a radio wave's carrier frequency very slightly in sympathy with a modulating signal's frequency.  Modulation of an example audio signal is shown in the figures below.   ||\\    ///\    //\\ || \\  //  \\  //  \\  --->  \  /\  /  --->       ||\\  /\\  // ||  \\\/    \\\/    \\        \/  \/              ||\\ //\\ //                                                   ||\\// \\//                                                       RF Carrier            Modulating signal        FM signal      The diagrams show that when the frequency of the modulating signal increases, so does the given carrier frequency, and the opposite when the modulating signal's frequency decreases. This is shown in the FM signal diagram by the bands being spaced widely apart when the modulating signal frequency is increasing, and more closely together when the modulating signal's frequency is decreasing.   ----[ 3.3 - Demodulation      When an FM modulated carrier signal is detected by the receiver's aerial wire, in order to recover the modulating signal, the FM modulation must be reversed.      Most modern FM radio receivers use a circuit called the 'phase-locked loop', which is able to recover FM modulated radio signals by use of a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator), and a 'phase detector'. Below is the system diagram of a PLL suitable for use in FM radio receivers.       FM signal in -------------> Phase  ---------------                                 Detector             |                                   |                  |                                   |                  |                                   |                  |                                   |                  |                                  VCO                 |                                    |__________________|                                                      |                                                      |                                                      |                                                      |                                                      |                                             Modulating signal                                                    out       The above PLL is able to recover the modulating signal by having one input to a phase detector as the modulated carrier, and the other input as a VCO oscillating at the frequency of the RF carrier. The phase detector 'compares' the two frequencies, and outputs a low-power voltage relative to the difference between the two 'phases', or frequencies. In essence, the outputted voltage will be relative to the frequency by which the carrier's frequency was shifted during modulation by the transmitter.  Therefore, the output of the PLL, known as the 'phase error', is the recovered modulating signal. In addition to being outputted from the small system, the voltage is also given to the VCO as 'feedback', which it uses to 'track' the modulation.  Acting upon the feedback received, the frequency of oscillation is altered accordingly, and the process is repeated as necessary.      In the past, less efficient and reliable circuits were used to demodulate FM radio signals, such as the 'ratio detector'. Although the 'ratio detector' is less sophisticated than PLL methods, a functioning ratio detector circuit is actually a little more complex than PLLs.      It should be noted that superhet receivers, touched upon a little earlier, can also be used as FM radio receivers, but their 'detectors' are different to that of an AM superhet -- for example, a PLL circuit or ratio detector discussed here could be used in conjunction with a superhet receiver to make an FM radio. This is the method which is actually adopted by most commercial radio receiver manufacturers.  ----[ 3.4 - Circuits   ------[ 3.4.1 - Transmitters      The same general principles apply to FM radio transmitters as they do to AM radio transmitters, except that information must be modulated in a different way.  In AM radio transmitters, the carrier frequency is more or less always constant.  However, in FM transmitters, the whole principle is to alter the carrier frequency in small amounts. This means that a tuned oscillator circuit is not appropriate, because we need to alter the frequency accordingly, not transmit at one static frequency.  The method used to overcome this problem is discussed a little later. A simple FM transmitter schematic diagram is presented below.                                                                       Aerial                                                                        |                                                                        |                                                                        |    ____________________________________________________________________|   |                               |                 |    |      |      |   |                               |                 |    |      |      )   |                               )                |-|  --- C3  |      )   |  R1                      L1   )             R3 | |  ---     |_ C4  )  |-|                              )                |_|   |      | |    )  | |                              )                 |    |      | ---  |  |_|               |   Crystal    |         C2      |    |      | ---  | L2   |_______________|||_____________|___________| |___|____|____|/   |   |   |                              /            | |             |\___|___|    |____________| |_____________|/                                      |   |            | |             |\  Q1                         Q2       |   |                              |                                     |   |            C1                |                                     |   M                             |-|                                    |   |                             | | R2                                 |   |                             |_|                                    |   |                              |                                     |   |______________________________|_____________________________________|       When audio signals are produced by the microphone, current carrying audio frequencies are amlified, and are used to modulate the radio wave.  Since the microphone does this all for us, there is no need to use modulation modules, ICs, or other technology.  In situations where an elecret microphone is not available to do the modulation for us, a varactor diode can be used to vary the capacitance in an oscillator circuit, depending on the amplitude of a modulating signal.  This varies the oscillation frequency of the oscillator circuit, thus producing FM modulation.    --[ 4 - Misc  ----[ 4.1 - Pirate Radio      Pirate Radio stations are simply just radio stations ran by individuals who are not licensed amateur radio enthusiasts.  Although radio is actually a natural resource, it has been illegal for a significant amount of time in some countries to transmit radio waves on certain frequencies.  Although transmitting radio signals on certain frequencies (around 27MHz) is legal in places like the UK, strict FCC regulations kick in, almost limiting the threshold to useless.  Because of this limitation, radio enthusiasts all around the globe see fit to set up pirate radio stations, which they use for their enjoyment, playing their favourite music tracks to the 'public', and for a breeding ground for aspiring DJs.  Some 'pirate radio' stations keep within the FCC terms, by transmitting at low-power. These types of stations are often referred to as 'free radio', or 'micropower stations'.      The legality of pirate radio stations is questionable, but varies from country to country.  In some European Countries, you can be arrested for just owning an unregistered transmitter.  In Ireland, prosecution rarely takes place if registered radio stations are not affected, but it is still illegal.  The US allows transmission of radio signals at *microscopic* power, making the limitations almost useless for unlicensed radio enthusiasts, thus causing them to resort to pirate radio.      Contrary to popular belief, setting up a pirate radio station is not necessarily a difficult task.  At the minimum, someone wanting to setup a pirate radio station would need the following pieces of equipment:  - Stereos, CD Players, Microphones, etc. - Audio Amp - Audio Mixer - Transmitter - Aerial      Stations using only the above equipment can sometimes sound quite crude, and might interfere with other legal radio stations.  To avoid this, a 'compressor' can be used, which also limits the noise created by sudden loud noises in the background.      Although any of the example transmitters in this article probably wouldn't be sufficient enough to transmit music audio signals over the air, but they could be used as a starting point to building your own, more efficient kit.  Additionally, FM and AM radio kits can be purchased, which anyone with a soldering iron can build.      The length and height of the antenna depends entirely on how far the radio signals need to be transmitted.  By reading the previous sections, some information on getting a correctly sized aerial can be gained.  For example, a quick and dirty aerial for an AM pirate radio station could be around 15-20 feet tall.      To avoid being busted, it is probably a good idea to stay within the legal power limits.  Otherwise, a Direction Finding device used by the authorities could easily track down the exact location of the transmitter.    ----[ 4.2 -  Wireless Telephone Tapping      'Beige boxing' has long been the easiest and most exploited way to tap telephones, interrupt on neighbours conversations, and use enemies phone lines to make long distance calls to your friend in Australia. However, since beige boxing requires the phreak to lurk around like a ninja, a safer method can be used, which doesn't require you to be physically close to the target phone line.      As expected, audio signals on a target phone line can be transmitted as  radio signals at an arbitrary frequency, and be received by any phreak with  an FM radio receiver.  Although this concept is not new, it serves as an  interesting and useful project for radio newbies to try out.  Below is a  simple FM phone bug transmitter circuit.                    __________________________________________________________                   |                    |                                    |                   |                    |                                    | IN (green) ___.___|_______            |-|                                   |               |   |       |           | |                                   |               |  /\  LED  |           |_|                                   |               |  ---     | |           |___| |      op-amp                  |                |   |   C1 | |           |   | |---|\                         |               |   |       |__________|/      ____| >------- Aerial          | IN (red) _____|___|                  |\ _____|___|/                         |               |   |                    |     |   |                          |                 |   |                    |     |   |                          | OUT (green) __|   |                    (     |   |                          |                  /\                    (     |  /\  varactor                |                  ---                   (     |  ---                         |                   |                    (     |   |                          | OUT (red) ________|____________________|_____|___|__________________________|   - inductor should be about 8 turns of wire - aerial should be about 5 inch long       By interchanging the varator with a crystal, or by using a variable capacitor, the frequency band on which the bug transmits line activity could be changed accordingly.  The varactor making up part of the oscillator circuit is intended to alter the frequency of oscillation, depending on the audio signal inputted from the green wire of the telephone line.  The varactor diode can be thought of as an electrically variable capacitor, which in this case alters its capacitance in sympathy with the audio frequency on the telephone line -- causing for change of oscillation frequency, and thus frequency modulation.       The following op-amp provides additional strength to the signal, in an attempt to avoid a weak, unreliable signal.  For user-friendly purposes, the LED connecting to the red wire of the line pair should illuminate when a signal is present on the line.      The above circuit can be modified to be made more efficient, and a longer aerial is an obvious way of lengthening the range of transmission.  If a phreak was to contruct and use a device like this, all they would need is an FM radio to tune into the correct frequency.  There are much better designs than the minimalistic one above -- if a practical FM telephone bug is required, many plans are available.   ----[ 4.3 - Jamming      Technically, all it takes to carry out 'radio jamming' is to transmit noise at a desired frequency.  For example, if a person in the UK were to transmit RF noise at 30MHz+, police radio communications could possibly disrupted.  Although the principles are mostly the same, there are several different types of jamming.  - modulated jamming   This consists of mixing different types of modulation, and   transmitting the results at a desired radio frequency.  This is   designed to make receiving legimate radio signals hard or next to   impossible.  - CW (continuous wave)   CW jamming only involves transmitting a consistant carrier frequency   once tuned into a RF frequency/band you want to jam.  This again makes   receiving desired radio signals particuarly hard.  - Broadband   Broadband jammers spread Gaussian noise across a whole band of audio   frequencies, blocking legimate audio signals from easy receival.       A basic radio transmitter is easily modifiable, by adding a noise generator, to successfully jam arbitrary frequency bands.  Many other types of radio jammers exist, and their details are readily available on the World Wide Web.   --[ 5 - Conclusion      Radio is an extremely useful technology, which is at least as old as the atom.  But we are only just beginning to exploit its full usefullness in even new and up and coming technology, and probably will do for the next few hundred years.      As we've discovered, contrary to popular belief, employing the use of radio in electronic circuits isn't at all as complicated as one would think.  Because of this, the use of radio and be both used and exploitfully abused -- only a few basic principles need to be understood to make use of this wonderful technology.  Although the surface has only been scratched, and way forward is open.
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Help me help you

You all want to know how its possible,some hear voices others hear voices and see things and others are just paronoid to the point of searching for a reason.I know what v2k broadcasters use to do voice to skull,i know what there set ups look like and i do have the right answers,trouble is no one reads these blogs and even if they did you wouldnt understand my exsplanations.sight triggers there sentences ,i have exsplained this before but no one cares,they use spotlight audio technology and still no one cares,they use ultrasound and infra red aswell as exchanging your subconcious attraction to colours for there words.No one cares as you all have your own ideas.I am right you are all wrong!its not goverments or spys or any other people asscociated along them paths,its normal(if you can call it that)people from everyday life,they could even be your neighbour.These people through using spotlight audio which creates ultrasound for directional use have found a way of manipulating the waves it creates by using the electromagnetic spectrum(uv)They exchange letters of the alphabet for subconcious colour having you spell what you see to start off a trigger.For instance if i had a lcd digital video camera with the letters aeioubl displayed on screen while filming a television set to recieve the recording you would have an endless repeat of what you veiwed(in other words a picture of the television you were recording would have another picture of a television and so on and so fourth,remember the letters aeioubl are projected on screen but first have to be projected from the lcd video recorder.this will reach the television as three mega pixel emissions which are red green and blue(primary colours)which you can see if you go up realy close to your television,infact i am going no further as i know no one will believe me or read this,i cannot tell you how its done without you losing intrest,it takes too long and is far more complicated than whats written above.so if antones intrested in how its done just leave me a comment as im realy fed up with bashing my head against a brick wall.Spotlight audio is the only processor in the world that can be bought legaly and used by members of the public.

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v2k triggersOnce alphabetical ultra tones are converted into a subconcious trigger for BLACK alpha sight spells out what you see at the speed of thought.
ABALAAA 5 recorded mannerisms of AEIOU raising pitch each time
EBELEEE there are 26 points of sight which attract the vowel tone conversions
IBILIII they work the same as your vocal chords by vibrating clashes of pulsars
OBOLOOO creating air waves from within you to the point of sight triggering the first
UBULUUU constonants which form the word BLA .the CK is what the v2k
broadcasters use for triggering as a constinants are now a subconcious
action.The victim does not spell the word BLACK it only recognises the words BLA as the CK exchanges words for colour,these two letters are the basis of light speech.The continuous static replaces our subconcious actions as the victim searches for BLA the CK is in the mind before the vowels as a subconcious trigger,while on the other hand the v2k broadcaster uses static light to trigger

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The truth!

V2k broadcasters use spotlight audio(holosonics)by way of converting speech within the ultrasonic range amplified by linear sound.The spotlight audio converts audible sound into ultratones which disperse through the airwaves(using cb and other communication methods)picking up on all known recievers(including the fcc rule)dispersing them everywhere within our homes,these go undetected!let me mention that v2k suffers go through the exact same process as a legitimate mental patient only to be separated by triggering.Triggering is linear compressed speech exchanged with natural subconcious actions which are are amplified by your illness, further more by the ultra tone conversions which combine within you e.g breath.This is your very first subconcious action as a vowel is a letter between breaths , which combine with the perpitrators second person gramma(and your own gramma)as your thoughts now begin to project from within you to the point of sight.Sight is an important factor as it keeps there broadcast continuous by having the air inbetween you and what you see amplified by linear sound at the same time as amplifying there broadcast which now exchanges your vowels with there constonants (which are spelt by way of sight)combining sight(a subconcious action)with distance(solids).Triggering can now take place as the broadcaster plays commands and such likes using streams of words sentences without vowels as this reaches our minds on the nearest scale.Because we now hear on this level it goes undetected to everybody else ,and because of this the broadcaster can say anything live! on the top of triggers.Our thought projection of vowels and constinonts exchange with theres in the way of above mentioned.There are countless victims over a vast area giving way for fantasists to second guess what were thinking as we have no option but to hear. There broadcast is returned back to them by time and distance causing an echo which acts as a vibration which in turn attracts light from there lcd source, this will be visions in negative as this lighting attracts the subconcious mind .(black and white).We are now dealing with holosonics!

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